Fish and amphibians as test organisms for evaluation of effects caused by chemicals.
Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880
A large number of chemicals can contaminate aquatic environments and therefore be exposed to fish and amphibians during their sensitive stages of development. This raises the need for robust methods to identify chemicals that disturb the developmental process. In this thesis, methods for toxicity testing and biomonitoring were developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) and West-African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis). Using these methods, two groups of substances that have achieved attention during recent years were tested, synthetic musks and brominated flame retardants, as well as substances with known mechanism of action. Moreover, zebrafish embryos were used to evaluate chemically complex extracts prepared of effluent water from oil/gas production platforms. Exposure was performed on the embryo stages, to reveal embryo toxic endpoints and in connection to the metamorphosis process in frogs, to evaluate disturbances of the thyroid hormone system. Both methods were able to detect adverse effects in exposed animals. The studies showed that some musk substances had toxic effects on embryos in environmentally relevant concentrations. Embryo toxic responses of musk ketone (MK) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) were recorded in zebrafish as well as in Xenopus tropicalis and moor frog (Rana arvalis) at comparable concentrations. Zebrafish embryos were adequate for monitoring the toxic impact of effluent water from oil/gas production platforms. Effects on X. tropicalis tadpoles due to exposure to propylthiouracil were reduced development and decreased hind limb length, which can be explained by thyroid disruption. Increased sensitivity of the method was achieved by measurements on histological preparations of the thyroid glands. Exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers resulted in signs of thyroid disrupting properties of one tested congener, BDE-99. Moreover, distribution of BDE-99 in tadpole and juvenile X. tropicalis showed long-term retention and accumulation in adipose tissue.
|Title:||Fish and amphibians as test organisms for evaluation of effects caused by chemicals|
|Year of publishing :||May 2007|
|Number of Pages:||42|
|Place of Publication:||Uppsala|
|Publication Type:||Doctoral thesis|
|Full Text Status:||Public|
|Agrovoc terms:||fishes, amphibians, aquatic environment, pollution, environmental impact, chemical contamination, toxicity, testing, monitoring|
|Keywords:||zebrafish, Danio rerio, Xenopus tropicalis, embryo, toxicity, tadpole, thyroid, musks, brominated flame retardants|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science > Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health|
|Deposited By:||Gunnar Carlsson|
|Deposited On:||23 May 2007 00:00|
|Metadata Last Modified:||03 May 2013 07:43|
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