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Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment

pollutant removal and recycling opportunities

Dalahmeh, Sahar (2013). Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2013:51
ISBN 978-91-576-7841-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Water scarcity, inappropriate sanitation and wastewater pollution are critically important global issues. Greywater is a sustainable water source for recycling, so this thesis examined simple, robust, low-cost alternatives for on-site treatment of greywater to irrigation water quality. Laboratory-scale pine bark, activated charcoal and sand filters were evaluated as regards their pollutant removal and interactions between medium properties, greywater, microbial activity and bacterial community structure. The effects of hydraulic and organic loading rates (HLR and OLR) were described by general regression models (GRM). The quality of the treated greywater was evaluated against Jordanian standards for irrigation water. A series of experiments examined treatment of artificial greywater in terms of lowering biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (Tot-P), nitrogen (Tot-N) and pathogen indicators (total thermotolerant coliforms) and tracer microorganisms (enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and bacteriophage PhiX). Following greywater loading, all filter materials developed biofilms with high bacterial diversity and richness. The driving force shaping bacterial communities in bark material was its organic composition and low pH, while the communities in the charcoal and sand filters were more influenced by the greywater. The GRM indicated that the performance of all filters was influenced by the HLR and OLR of the present and previous runs. The organic matter content and surface and hydraulic properties of the bark filters resulted in high BOD5 removal rates (94-99%), even at increased HLR and OLR, but accompanied by release of dissolved organic substances originating from the bark itself. High nitrification occurred in the bark filters in all loading regimes tested, but with low Tot-N removal. The bark filters demonstrated 1-3 log10 removal of microorganisms, but bark organic nature made its filters more vulnerable to biodegradation and disintegration. The charcoal had large specific surface area, which provided the capacity for intermediate-high removal of BOD5 (83-97%), Tot-N (50-98%) and Tot-P (64-98%), but removal of microorganisms was poor. The sand filters demonstrated low BOD5 removal (67-91%) and high nitrification, but low nitrogen removal. Greywater treatment by bark and charcoal filters reduced their organics content to acceptable irrigation levels. Nitrogen and microorganisms must be further reduced to meet Jordanian standards on treated wastewater for irrigation.

Authors/Creators:Dalahmeh, Sahar
Title:Bark and charcoal filters for greywater treatment
Subtitle:pollutant removal and recycling opportunities
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :16 May 2013
Volume:2013:51
Number of Pages:75
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
I.Dalahmeh, S.S., Hylander, L.D., Vinnerås, B., Pell, M., Öborn, I., Jönsson, H. (2011). Potential of organic filter materials for treating greywater to achieve irrigation quality: A review. Water Science and Technology 63(9), 1832-1840.
II.Dalahmeh, S., Pell, M., Vinnerås, B., Hylander, L., Öborn, I., Jönsson, H. (2012). Efficiency of bark, activated charcoal, foam and sand filters in reducing pollutants from greywater. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 223(7), 3657-3671.
III.Dalahmeh, S.S., Jönsson, H., Hylander, L., Hui, N., Pell, M. Dynamics and functions of bacterial communities in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater (manuscript).
IV.Dalahmeh, S.S, Pell, M., Hylander, L., Lalander, C., Vinnerås, B., Jönsson, H. Greywater treatment using bark, charcoal and sand filters - response to changing hydraulic and organic loading rates (manuscript).
V.Lalander, C., Dalahmeh, S., Vinnerås, B., Jönsson, H (2013). Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment - a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates Environmenal Technology, DOI:10.1080/09593330.2013.783603.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7841-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:P Natural resources > P10 Water resources and management
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 207 Environmental Engineering > Environmental Management
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 208 Environmental Biotechnology > Bioremediation
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 208 Environmental Biotechnology > Water Treatment
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 405 Other Agricultural Sciences > Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Agrovoc terms:wastewater, wastewater treatment, filters, bark, charcoal, activated carbon, sand, organic matter, nitrogen, recycling, pollutants, irrigation water, quality
Keywords:bacterial diversity, biofilm, BOD5, COD, hydraulic loading, irrigation, nitrogen, organic loading, organic matter, respiration
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1470
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1470
ID Code:10450
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
External funders:FORMAS and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Deposited By: sahar dalahmeh
Deposited On:21 May 2013 09:53
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 11:01

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