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Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems

Carlander, Anneli (2006). Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2006:29
ISBN 91-576-7078-1
[Doctoral thesis]

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Treatment and reuse of wastewater by irrigation of willow coppice, forest or wetlands may create new exposure routes for pathogens. This thesis summarises results from a series of field and laboratory studies aimed at identifying and quantifying the microbial health hazards associated with such alternative wastewater treatment systems. Leaching and retention of viruses in the soil-plant system were studied in a lysimeter experiment using a bacteriophage as model organism. The presence and die-off of pathogens was studied in three full-scale systems with wastewater irrigation of willow in southern Sweden. The reduction in pathogens was also studied in microcosms under controlled conditions. In addition, the presence and die-off of pathogens in two wetlands was studied. Finally, a risk assessment was made in order to identify and quantify the most important exposure routes of pathogens. In the Swedish full-scale systems, the average reduction in microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants was in the range 1.3-2.5 log10. Analyses of faeces collected in the irrigated area did not indicate an increase in pathogens in mammals and birds, whereas indicator organisms were detected in foliage and in some groundwater samples in the fields. The results of the lysimeter study showed very high retention of viruses in sandy soils, whereas leaching to groundwater was substantial and extremely rapid in the clay soil. In the microcosm study Campylobacter were rapidly reduced (<3 h) while Salmonella bacteria were highly resistant. No single factor (light, temperature or radiation) was found to govern the reduction. In the wetlands studied, the reduction in suspended particles seemed to be the main factor controlling bacterial elimination from the water phase. In the sediment, survival of microorganisms was prolonged. The theoretical microbial risk assessment indicated a substantial risk of viral infections caused by direct contact with the wastewater, with aerosols from irrigation, or by drinking contaminated groundwater.

Authors/Creators:Carlander, Anneli
Title:Assessment of microbial health hazards associated with wastewater application to willow coppice, coniferous forest and wetland systems
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :April 2006
Number of Pages:62
ALLI. Carlander, A., Aronsson, P., Allestam, G., Stenström, T.A. & Perttu, K. 2000. Transport and retention of bacteriophages in two types of willow-cropped zero-tension lysimeters. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A35:8, 1477-1492. II. Carlander, A. & Stenström, T.A. 2001. Irrigation with pretreated wastewater on short rotation willow coppice – a sanitary study in Sweden. International Ecological Engineering Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 25-29 November, 2001. III. Åström, J., Carlander, A., Sahlén, K. & Stenström, T.A. Faecal indicator and pathogen reduction in vegetation microcosm (manuscript submitted to Water, Air & Soil Pollution. IV. Stenström, T.A. & Carlander, A. 2000. Occurrence and die-off of indicator organisms in the sediment and in two constructed wetlands. Water Science and Technology 44 (11-12), 223-230. V. Carlander, A., Schönning, C. & Stenström, T.A. Comparative microbial risk assessment – short rotation willow coppice irrigated with wastewater in Greece, Northern Ireland and Sweden (manuscript)
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-7078-1
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L20 Animal ecology
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:wastewater, irrigation, wetlands, salix, leaching, pathogens, zoonoses, environmental impact assessment, indicator organisms, lysimeters, experimentation, sweden, northern ireland, greece
Keywords:indicator organism, irrigation, leaching, lysimeters, pathogens, risk assessment, transmission, wastewater, wetlands, willow, zoonose.
Permanent URL:
ID Code:1081
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Crop Production Ecology
Deposited By: Anneli Carlander
Deposited On:07 Apr 2006 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:09

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