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Impact of Brassicaceae cover crops on pea root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) in subsequent peas

Hossain, Shakhawat (2013). Impact of Brassicaceae cover crops on pea root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) in subsequent peas. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2013:78
ISBN 978-91-576-7894-2
eISBN 978-91-576-7895-9
[Doctoral thesis]

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PDF (Summarising chapter, ”kappan”)
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Image (JPEG) (A. euteiches life cycle)
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Image (JPEG) (Aphanomyces pea root rot disease scale)
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Image (JPEG) (Effect of volatiles from brassica tissue on A. euteiches (A) hypha and (B) oospore)
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Image (JPEG) (Effect of volatiles from brassica tissue on A. euteiches oospore and the development of pea root rot )
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Image (JPEG) (Equipment used for collecting volatiles from hydrated brassica tissue)
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Image (JPEG) (Equipment used for collecting volatiles from soil rhizosphere of brassica)
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Image (JPEG) (Effect of brassica cover crops incorporation after growth on the development of pea root rot)
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Image (JPEG) (Pea root rot disease severity with (B) and without (A) brassica cover crops)
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Image (JPEG) (Effect of brassica cover crops growth on the development of pea root rot)
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Image (JPEG) (effect of brassica cover crops growth on the abundance of N2-fixing and nitrifying community )
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Abstract

The soil-borne pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches Drechs is among the greatest threats to pea production world-wide. This pathogen can persist in soil for many years without a host plant and is very difficult to control due to its long-lived oospores and to environmental restrictions on fungicide application. Brassicaceae (brassica) cover crops, which are already used in agricultural cropping systems to reduce nutrient leaching and prevent soil erosion, can also be used to control some soil-borne pathogens. Most brassica plants contain glucosinolates (GSLs) and some hydrolysis products of GSLs, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), can be highly toxic to soil organisms. Different vegetative parts of the plant and different brassica species contain different GSLs.

In his thesis, two brassica species with different GSL profiles, Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba, and the pathogen A. euteiches were used as models in bio-fumigation studies. In vitro experiments showed that volatiles produced from B. juncea shoot tissue strongly inhibited growth of A. euteiches mycelium, while volatiles from S. alba tissue had a weaker effect. However, a direct bioassay following incorporation of fresh brassica tissues into A. euteiches-infected soil showed no suppression of root rot in pea plants.

Further in vitro experiments showed that ITC concentration and duration of exposure were both essential factors for the inhibitory effect on the pathogen. Analysis of the initial ITC production from the two brassica species used as models showed different release patterns, with S. alba tissue showing more immediate production of ITCs than B. juncea tissue.

There was significant suppression of pea root rot when S. alba was grown for 11 weeks in an A. euteiches-infected soil. ITCs were detected in the rhizosphere of the growing brassica crops and the variety of ITCs produced by S. alba roots appeared to be the main factor for inhibition. Problems can arise in bio-fumigation if beneficial organisms such as N2-fixing bacteria and ammonia-oxidising organisms are also suppressed. However, real-time PCR analysis to quantify gene copies of key enzymes involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation in soil sampled after 10 weeks of cover crop growth showed that the N2-fixing bacterial communities and the ammonia-oxidising bacteria and archaea were not negatively affected by the growing brassicas.

When using brassicas to control soil-borne pathogens, important factors are the choice of brassica species, a sufficient concentration of volatile ITCs and exposure for a sufficient period of time, which may require soil covering after brassica tissue incorporation.

Authors/Creators:Hossain, Shakhawat
Title:Impact of Brassicaceae cover crops on pea root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) in subsequent peas
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :17 October 2013
Volume:2013:78
Number of Pages:37
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
I.Hossain, S., Bergkvist, G., Berglund, K., Mårtensson, A., and Persson, P. 2012. Aphanomyces pea root rot disease and control with special reference to impact of Brassicaceae cover crops. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science 62(6), 477-487.
II.II Hossain, S., Bergkvist, G., Berglund, K., Mårtensson, A., Glinwood, R. and Persson, P. Growth of Sinapis alba in Aphanomyces euteiches infested soil reduces pea root rot in subsequent peas (manuscript).
III.III Hossain, S., Bergkvist, G., Berglund, K., Mårtensson, A. Hallin, S. and Persson, P. Influence of Brassicaceae cover crops on ammonia-oxidising and nitrogen-fixing organism communities (manuscript).
IV.IV Hossain, S., Bergkvist, G., Berglund, K., Mårtensson, A., Glinwood, R., Kabouw, P. and Persson, P. Concentration and time-dependent effects of isothiocyanates produced from Brassicaceae shoot tissues on the pea root rot pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7894-2
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-7895-9
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:H Protection of plants and stored products > H20 Plant diseases
P Natural resources > P34 Soil biology
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
Agrovoc terms:aphanomyces euteiches, soilborne organisms, pathogens, pisum sativum, root rots, brassica juncea, sinapis alba, cover plants, glucosinolates, thiocyanates, disease control
Keywords:glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, nutrients, N2-fixing bacteria, nitrifying community
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1669
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1669
ID Code:10857
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Crop Production Ecology
Deposited By: Shakhawat Hossain
Deposited On:18 Oct 2013 08:39
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 11:03

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