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Tillage effects on soil respiration in Swedish arable soils

Kainiemi, Veera (2014). Tillage effects on soil respiration in Swedish arable soils. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2014:2
ISBN 978-91-576-7952-2
eISBN 978-91-576-7953-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

The amount of carbon (C) present in soil is greater than the sum of C present in terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere combined. Small changes in soils can therefore affect atmospheric CO₂ levels and ultimately the global climate. Soil C is also one of the main soil properties involved in several soil functions critical for soil productivity. Mechanical disturbance of the soil, e.g. through tillage, can influence soil C and has been the focus of much research. However, the mechanisms behind C mineralisation are still not completely understood and research results vary. Tillage
affects the availability of organic material for decomposers, the soil structure and the activity of soil organisms, which are also affected by changes in soil moisture and temperature.

This thesis examined the effects of different tillage practices on short-term soil respiration and changes in soil structure, moisture and temperature and the effects on C mineralisation in soils. It also quantified potential soil respiration resulting from mechanical disturbance in different Swedish arable soils. In order to unravel the mechanisms involved, experiments were carried out in the field and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The response of soil respiration to different tillage treatments and plant residue managements was measured in the field and changes in soil structure, moisture and temperature were recorded and related to soil respiration. In the laboratory, soils of different textures were subjected to mechanical disturbance at different water contents and potential soil respiration was measured.

The field studies showed that mouldboard ploughing decreased soil respiration by up to 340 kg ha⁻¹ compared with no tillage and 140 kg ha⁻¹ compared with shallow tillage
during the 10 days following tillage, after which the differences were negligible. Soil temperature and water content did not significantly affect soil respiration in the field. Furthermore, mouldboard ploughing produced most large aggregates (>64 mm), corresponding to about 90% of soil mass in the tilled layer and resulted also in the lowest soil respiration. The potential soil respiration following physical disturbance at a
controlled water content and temperature resulted in C losses of up to 74 kg ha⁻¹ in the laboratory, indicating that increasing clay content and water content can increase the risk of C losses from soils due to mechanical disturbance. However, under field conditions, the mechanisms behind C mineralisation following tillage are primarily determined by residue management rather than by soil structure or changes in soil
moisture and temperature.

Authors/Creators:Kainiemi, Veera
Title:Tillage effects on soil respiration in Swedish arable soils
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :3 January 2014
Volume:2014:2
Number of Pages:68
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
I.Kainiemi, V., Arvidsson, J., Kätterer, T. (2013). Short-term organic matter mineralisation following different types of tillage on a Swedish arable soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49(5), 495-504.
II.Kainiemi, V., Arvidsson, J., Kätterer, T. Effects of autumn tillage and residue management on soil respiration in a Swedish long-term field experiment. (manuscript).
III.Kainiemi, V., Kirchmann, H., Kätterer, T. Respiration response to physical disturbance in arable soils of differing texture under controlled conditions. (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7952-2
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-7953-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F07 Soil cultivation
P Natural resources > P33 Soil chemistry and physics
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
Agrovoc terms:tillage, arable soils, crop residues, soil structure, soil respiration, organic matter, degradation, carbon mineralization, soil water content, soil temperature, sweden
Keywords:soil respiration, tillage, soil structure
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1743
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1743
ID Code:10961
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
(S) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
Deposited By: Veera Kainiemi
Deposited On:07 Jan 2014 09:26
Metadata Last Modified:14 Dec 2014 09:33

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