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Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers

clinical aspects

Karlsson, Frida (2014). Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2014:35
ISBN 978-91-576-8018-1
eISBN 978-91-576-8019-8
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

The hypothesis tested in this work is that bacteria of genus Treponema play a main role when shoulder ulcers and ear necrosis occur in an infectious or severe form, and perhaps also in other skin conditions in the pig. Samples were collected from pigs in 19 Swedish herds 2010-2011. The sampled skin lesions included 52 shoulder ulcers, 57 ear necroses, 4 facial necroses and 5 other skin ulcers. Occurrence of spirochetes was detected by phase contrast microscopy, Warthin-Starry silver staining, PCR and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Treponemal diversity was investigated by sequencing of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region 2 (ISR2) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of a part of the 16S rRNA gene. Culturing and characterization of treponemes by biochemical analyses, testing of antimicrobial susceptibility and fingerprinting by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were carried out. A challenge study was performed to test if Treponema pedis induced skin lesions. Serological response towards TPE0673, a T. pedis protein, was tested with ELISA.

Spirochetes were found in all types of skin ulcers and in all herds. The occurrence of Treponema spp. detected by PCR was 52% in shoulder ulcers, 46% in ear necrosis and 9.7% in gingiva. Treponemes were identified in 69% of the shoulder ulcers and in 59% of the ear necroses by FISH. A phylogenetic tree revealed a great variability of treponemes. Three main phylotypes were identified; T. pedis, Treponema parvum and one phylotype without designation. Twelve isolates of T. pedis, T. parvum, and one phylotype most similar to Treponema sp. OMZ 840 were obtained. All except two had unique RAPD fingerprints. Biochemical tests could not differentiate between the isolates and they were generally susceptible to tested antimicrobials. By FISH, treponemes were visualized deep in the ulcers and a predominance of T. pedis was noted, and confirmed by HTS. Challenged pigs did not develop any lesions or IgG response towards the T. pedis protein. Most sows with shoulder ulcers showed a strong, and most cases of ear necrosis a weak IgG response towards TPE0673. In conclusion, Treponema spp. are frequently abundant in ear necroses and shoulder ulcers in pigs. Identical phylotypes and ISR2 sequences from ulcers and gingiva indicate spreading from mouth to ulcer. A broad diversity of phylotypes was revealed, but the predominance of T. pedis suggests specific importance of this species. Our results point towards an important role of treponemes in chronic and severe skin ulcers in pigs.

Authors/Creators:Karlsson, Frida
Title:Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers
Subtitle:clinical aspects
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2014
Volume:2014:35
Number of Pages:79
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
I.Karlsson, F., Svartström, O., Belák, K., Fellström, C. & Pringle, M. (2013). Occurrence of Treponema spp. in porcine skin ulcers and gingiva. Veterinary Microbiology 165(3-4), 402-409.
II.Svartström, O., Karlsson, F., Fellström, C. & Pringle, M. (2013). Characterization of Treponema spp. isolates from pigs with ear necrosis and shoulder ulcers. Veterinary Microbiology 166(3-4), 617-623.
III.Karlsson, F., Klitgaard, K. & Jensen, T. K. (2014). Identification of Treponema pedis as the predominant Treponema species in porcine skin ulcers by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and high-throughput sequencing. Veterinary Microbiology. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.03.019.
IV.Karlsson F., Backhans A., Fellström C. & Rosander A. (2014). A Treponema pedis challenge model in pigs and serological response to IdeT homologue TPE0673. Manuscript.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8018-1
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8019-8
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L73 Animal diseases
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 304 Medical Biotechnology > Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Medical Bioscience
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Pathobiology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Clinical Science
Agrovoc terms:swine, wounds, treponema, pathogens, skin, shoulders, animal diseases, infectious diseases, microscopy, pcr, rapd
Keywords:Treponema, skin ulcer, shoulder ulcer, decubital ulcer, ear necrosis, ear biting, facial necrosis, facial ulcer, pig
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1865
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1865
ID Code:11135
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: PhDstudent Frida Karlsson
Deposited On:22 Apr 2014 11:20
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 11:05

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