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En blomstrande marknad

handelsträdgårdar i Sverige 1900-1950 med fyra fallstudier i Stockholms län

Olausson, Inger (2014). En blomstrande marknad. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2014:27
ISBN 978-91-576-8002-0
eISBN 978-91-576-8003-7
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Avhandlingen syftar till att fördjupa förståelsen för handelsträdgårdarnas verksamhet och trädgårdsnäringens utveckling i Sverige under perioden 1900–1950. Den är ett bidrag till forskningen om den yrkesmässiga, kommersiella trädgårdsodlingens historia i Sverige efter industrialismens genombrott, vilket är ett eftersatt forskningsområde. Handelsträdgårdar var trädgårdsodlingar med yrkesmässig produktion av grönsaker, blommor, bär, frukt och ettåriga utplanteringsväxter. Det var en intensiv och resurskrävande produktion på friland, i drivbänkar och växthus.

Fyra handelsträdgårdar i det som vid tiden var Stockholms län, studeras som fallstudier. Två var herrgårdsträdgårdar med anställd arbetskraft och två enskilda familjeföretag, vilket möjliggör en jämförelse mellan dessa båda typer av handelsträdgårdar. Källmaterialen har bland annat bestått av räkenskaper, korrespondens, dagböcker, fotografier och insamlingen av sådant material utgjorde en del av avhandlingsarbetet. Teorier och begrepp har hämtats från företagsekonomi och entreprenörskap och har använts för att synliggöra, tydliggöra och resonera kring skeenden i fallstudierna. Frågeställningarna rör handelsträdgårdarnas resursbehov, strategier, konkurrenskraft, sortiment och flexibilitet. Några av de teman som behandlas mer ingående är trädgårdsmästarens kunskap och kunskapsuppbyggnad, odling och odlingsteknik, det odlade sortimentet, handelsträdgårdarnas lokalisering, avsättningen av trädgårdsprodukter samt sociala, politiska och ekonomiska förändringar i samhället som påverkade trädgårdsnäringen och dess aktörer.

Under tidsperioden ökade efterfrågan av trädgårdsprodukter och både den inhemska produktionen och importen av dessa varor ökade. Under de båda världskrigen begränsades importen vilket gynnade odlingen inom landet. Vid seklets början var närheten till städer och tätorter betydelsefull för att få tillgång till viktiga resurser, framför allt en marknad för avsättningen av de ömtåliga, skrymmande produkterna och tillgång till gödsel, latrin och annat avfall till varmbänkarna. Den ökande konkurrenssituationen för odlarna bidrog till att produktion, odlingsteknik och sortiment förändrades liksom handel och transportsystem. Det organisatoriska avståndet mellan producent och konsument blev längre liksom det i tid och rum. Då mellanhänderna blev fler förändrades kraven på produkterna mot en ökad tålighet och enhetlighet.

Authors/Creators:Olausson, Inger
Title:En blomstrande marknad
Subtitle:handelsträdgårdar i Sverige 1900-1950 med fyra fallstudier i Stockholms län
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
English

The main aim of the thesis is to contribute to an increased understanding of the development of the horticulture industry, especially the market gardens in Sweden during the period 1900-1950. Market gardens produced vegetables, flowers, berries, fruits, and annual bedding plants. It was a resource-intensive production on open-field, in hotbeds and greenhouses. Changes of the strategies and competitiveness in the market garden businesses are described and discussed, during a period when the number of companies and imports both increased considerable.

Four case studies of market gardens in Stockholm County form the foundation of the thesis. They represent the two most common types of market gardens at this time: sole trader market gardens (often family businesses) and manor gardens (run with the help of employees). Primary source materials consisted of accounting records, business and personal correspondence, diaries and photographs. The collection of such material constituted part of the thesis. Theories and concepts are taken from economics and entrepreneurship and have been used to visualize, clarify and discuss developments in the case studies. Some of the issues relating to the production and trading of the garden products are resources, strategies, competitiveness, range and flexibility. Some of the topics covered in greater depth is the gardener's knowledge and knowledge acquisition, cultivation techniques, the range of produce, the market gardens localization, trading and marketing of horticultural produce, social, political and economic changes in society that affect horticulture and its operators.

During the time period 1900-1950, the demand for garden products increased rapidly and both domestic production and imports of these products increased. During the two world wars imports were rationed, which favored the cultivation within the country. At the beginning of the century market gardens were often established in or nearby cities, where the necessary resources were available that contributed to their competitiveness compared to others who grew and sold garden produce. The hot beds demanded a great deal of fresh manure and other waste in the cities, which was a problem, and thus a resource that was easily accessible to the gardeners. Market gardens thus became part of the city´s cycle, using waste to create an important resource for the production of food. More efficient transport, new more robust varieties, better handling after harvesting, suitable packaging and reduced need for labor meant that the significance of place changed. For customers, the producer increasingly became anonymous. Many growers sold their produce to wholesalers, who subsequently sold it to grocery stores or local shops. Wholesalers were interested in uniform produce in a standardized range and demanded other qualities of the produce than customers whom gardeners met at markets did.

Gardeners at manor gardens enjoyed a high status at the beginning of the twentieth century. Just over fifty years later, most of the manor gardens had either been leased out or closed down. Times were also hard for many family-run businesses after the Second World War, but it would take another couple of decades before most of these closed down. Originally, a lot of production in manor gardens had been for resident families’ personal demand for utility and ornamental plants. Gardeners were also in charge of the cultivation of more pleasure-focused aspects of gardening that were an important part of the environment and functioned as a demarcation of status for the resident family. As the production of plants for sale increased, the demands on revenue increased. At the same time, some of the old demands lived on; for example, with respect to parkland and other cultural values that should be maintained, and families had specific requests about what should be grown. That meant that certain services and products were demanded regardless of whether these were profitable or not, and that made it more difficult to rationalise the crops to improve competitiveness.

Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :29 April 2014
Volume:2014:27
Number of Pages:283
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Institutionen för ekonomi, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8002-0
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8003-7
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:Swedish
Additional Information:Avhandlingen utges parallellt av Carlsson bokförlag, Stockholm, med ISBN 978-91-7331-645-3
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:B Geography and history > B50 History
E Economics, development, and rural sociology > E20 Organization, administration and management of agricultural enterprises or farms
E Economics, development, and rural sociology > E70 Trade, marketing and distribution
F Plant production > F01 Crop husbandry
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Horticulture
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 502 Economics and Business > Economic History
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 6 Humanities > 601 History and Archaeology > History
Agrovoc terms:horticulture, market gardens, economic competition, market structure, gardening, plant production, crops, case studies, history, sweden
Keywords:Hortikultur, Trädgårdsodling, Trädgårdshistoria, Trädgårdsekonomi, Agrarhistoria, Handelsträdgård, Trädgårdsnäring, Trädgårdsmästare, Herrgårdsträdgård
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1866
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-1866
ID Code:11136
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Economics
External funders:C. F. Lundströms stiftelse and Samfundet S:t Erik and Stiftelsen Hem i Sverige-fonden
Deposited By: Hortonom Inger Olausson
Deposited On:23 Apr 2014 10:57
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 11:05

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