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Nematode parasites of reindeer in Fennoscandia

population dynamics, anthelmintic control and its environmental impact

Hrabok, Jackie T. (2006). Nematode parasites of reindeer in Fennoscandia. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2006:89
ISBN 91-576-7138-9
[Doctoral thesis]

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Nematode infections of semi-domesticated reindeer of northern Finland were monitored by faecal egg counts. The tracer calf technique was also used to estimate the acquisition of nematode infection from pasture. The most abundant parasite in the worm counts of tracer animals and in faecal egg counts of adult female reindeer was Ostertagia gruehneri. Capillaria sp. eggs were detected in calves and adults, but Nematodirinae eggs were only recovered from calves. Egg output of O. gruehneri was most abundant from late summer to autumn whereas Capillaria sp. and the Nematodirinae dominated the winter months. The proportion of inhibited larvae of O. gruehneri and Nematodirinae steadily increased from summer to early winter, followed by a decline and a commensurate increase in the number of adult parasites in the second summer. High prevalence and low intensity also characterized the nematode infections of winter-slaughtered reindeer from other northern herds examined. Our investigations showed that parasite transmission occurs throughout the year in this part of the sub-Arctic. We demonstrated that reindeer are suitable hosts for important nematode parasites of sheep and goats (Haemonchus contortus and Teladorsagia circumcincta) and cattle (Ostertagia ostertagi), as well as for Trichostrongylus axei. However, it is not known if all of these parasite species reach maturity in reindeer. With the trend towards increasing numbers of livestock in the southern grazing regions of reindeer, these findings highlight the increased risks with parasites not normally associated with reindeer. Approximately 80% of reindeer in Finland are de-wormed with ivermectin once annually in the winter. We analysed soil samples containing faeces from reindeer treated with ivermectin. Ivermectin degraded rapidly during the first spring, but residual levels were detected for more than two summer seasons following treatment. Residues were similar from ungrazed and grazed reindeer pastures, but the levels in faeces from reindeer treated with oral ivermectin were higher than for the subcutaneous formulation. Our results show that ivermectin persists on pasture longer than previously shown. However, the levels found had no detectable negative effects on the soil nematode communities beneath the faeces.

Authors/Creators:Hrabok, Jackie T.
Title:Nematode parasites of reindeer in Fennoscandia
Subtitle:population dynamics, anthelmintic control and its environmental impact
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :September 2006
Number of Pages:52
ALLI. Hrabok, J. T., A. Oksanen, M. Nieminen, P. J. Waller. 2006. Population dynamics of nematode parasites of reindeer in the sub-Arctic. Veterinary Parasitology, doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.07.024 II. Hrabok, J. T., A. Oksanen, M. Nieminen, P. J. Waller. 2006. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in winter-slaughtered reindeer of northern Finland (submitted to Rangifer). III. Hrabok, J. T., A. Oksanen, M. Nieminen, A. Rydzik, A. Uggla, P. J. Waller. 2006. Reindeer as hosts for nematode parasites of sheep and cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 136, 297-306. IV. Yeates, G. W., J. T. Hrabok , A. Oksanen, M. Nieminen, P. J. Waller. 2006. Soil nematode populations beneath faeces from reindeer treated with ivermectin. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavia Section B – Soil and Plant Science, doi:10.1080/09064710600722563 V. Åsbakk, K., J. T. Hrabok, A. Oksanen, M. Nieminen, P. J. Waller. 2006. Prolonged persistence of faecally excreted ivermectin from reindeer in a sub-Arctic environment (submitted to the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-7138-9
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:nematode infections, nematoda, reindeer, livestock, epidemiology, disease transmission, ivermectin, anthelmintics, free living nematodes, population dynamics, environmental impact, cold zones, finland
Keywords:Ostertagia gruehneri, Nematodirinae, epidemiology, cross-transmission, livestock, ivermectin, soil nematodes, sub-Arctic, Finland
Permanent URL:
ID Code:1207
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health
Deposited By: Jackie T. Hrabok
Deposited On:21 Sep 2006 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:10

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