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Spatial patterns of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic archipelago

ecological factors, human impact and conservation

Nord, Maria (2015). Spatial patterns of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic archipelago. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2015:79
ISBN 978-91-576-8356-4
eISBN 978-91-576-8357-1
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Coastal areas are crucial to numerous breeding bird species, but have undergone major changes because of anthropogenic development pressures such as altered land use and increased recreational activities. An understanding of what shapes species distribution patterns, and how human activities affect these patterns, is therefore necessary for marine management. The aim of this thesis is to investigate possible causes of spatial patterns of coastal breeding birds, and how human activities and environmental legislation affect these species. Forty eight coastal breeding bird species were surveyed in 4,646 squares of 1 × 1 km size, covering an archipelago in the Baltic Sea, on the east coast of Sweden. We classified all bird species as either specialist species, i.e. specialized coastal breeders, or as generalist species, i.e. species breeding also inland. Specialist species were found further out to sea, while generalist species were found closer to the mainland. The number of specialist and generalist species per square increased as total shoreline length increased, likely because of availability of suitable breeding habitat and feeding areas. Animal sanctuaries were significantly more effective in capturing specialist species and red-listed species than were unprotected areas, while nature reserves often were less effective compared to unprotected areas. Further, specialist species richness decreased as human shoreline exploitation such as buildings and jetties increased, while there was no significant effect on generalist species richness. Likewise, there was a higher probability of applications for exemptions from the general shore protection regulation to occur in squares with fewer specialist species. It is possible that habitats for specialist species are not appropriate for exploitation or that human disturbance make specialist species avoid exploited areas. The proportion of granted exemptions was very high (96%), and the areas they concerned were often close to previously exploited areas. Exploitation of shores is a continuous but slow process known as the cumulative effects problem or the ‘tyranny of small decisions made singly’, and this is difficult to tackle by environmental legislation. To conserve the breeding habitat along the shorelines in the archipelago, it is necessary to protect the shoreline against further exploitation, and appropriate management of unprotected shorelines is essential.

Authors/Creators:Nord, Maria
Title:Spatial patterns of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic archipelago
Subtitle:ecological factors, human impact and conservation
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :August 2015
Depositing date:19 August 2015
Volume:2015:79
Number of Pages:61
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
INord, M. & Forslund, P. (2015). Environmental gradients explain species richness and community composition of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic Sea. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118455
IINord, M., Gustafsson, L., Johansson, V., Pärt, T. & Forslund, P. The effectiveness of protected areas for capturing coastal bird diversity in the Swedish archipelago (manuscript)
IIINord, M., Pärt, T., Glimskär, A., Kindström, M. & Forslund, P. Effects of shore exploitation on coastal bird diversity in the Stockholm archipelago (manuscript)
IVForslund, P. & Nord, M. Application of the Swedish shore protection regulation in the Baltic Sea archipelago in relation to the diversity of coastal breeding birds (manuscript)
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8356-4
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8357-1
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:D Administration and legislation > D50 Legislation
P Natural resources > P01 Nature conservation and land resources
Subjects:Obsolete subject words > NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Agrovoc terms:birds, biodiversity, coastal areas, islands, protected areas, population dynamics, baltic sea
Keywords:biodiversity, archipelago, Baltic Sea, birds, avian richness, avian abundance, environmental gradients, protected areas, shoreline exploitation
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2849
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2849
ID Code:12519
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: Maria Nord
Deposited On:20 Aug 2015 12:21
Metadata Last Modified:01 Sep 2015 12:42

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