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Essays on resource policy, gender and land rights

Widman, Marit (2015). Essays on resource policy, gender and land rights. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2015:104
ISBN 978-91-576-8406-6
eISBN 978-91-576-8407-3
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

This thesis consists of four papers. Articles I-III address gender aspects of land formalization and the role of land ownership for intra-household bargaining power. They draw on evidence from a land tenure reform in Madagascar implemented in 2005, a key component of which was to grant land certificates, i.e. private property rights to landholders. During fieldwork in Madagascar in 2011, I collected household survey data and conducted focus group interviews, mainly in the rural municipality Soavinandriana. In Articles I and II I assess the outcome of the reform in terms of securing women’s land rights, using a combination of econometric and qualitative methods. The analyses suggest that the certification program has strengthened both men’s and women’s formal claims to individually held land. However, there is bias for men’s land certificates. Policy makers presumed the land legislation to be gender-neutral and therefore no gender equality principles and no mechanisms to ensure joint ownership were enforced. Problems of access, long waiting times, and high costs of the land administration were given priority over gender issues. The political crisis in Madagascar in 2009, resulting in underfunding and weak implementation of the reform, further weakened efforts to promote women’s rights to land. In Article III we investigate analytically and through numerical simulations how the intra-household bargaining positions of a couple are affected by the opportunity to title agricultural land, and how the couple's titling choice is determined. Results suggest that when land registration is offered to couples as a discrete choice between individual or joint titles there is a risk that women with weak initial bargaining positions will be further weakened following the reform. A joint title will only be chosen if the spouses start off with relatively equal bargaining positions; otherwise a male title will be chosen.

In Article IV we compare the costs of livestock depredation by carnivores across different carnivore species – brown bear, wolf and lynx – and regions. We estimate the government’s compensation cost function, using Swedish data on county level in the years 2001–2013. Results indicate that costs are determined by the densities of predators, livestock, and alternative prey, the share of forest pasture, and the unit compensation level granted by authorities. Considerable differences in marginal costs between predator species and counties are estimated, accentuating the challenges facing policy makers trying to reconcile different policy objectives.

Authors/Creators:Widman, Marit
Title:Essays on resource policy, gender and land rights
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :23 September 2015
Depositing date:22 September 2015
Volume:2015:104
Number of Pages:32
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IWidman, M. (2014). Land Tenure Insecurity and Formalizing Land Tenure in Madagascar: A Gender Perspective on the Certification Program. Feminist Economics 20(1), 130-154
IIWidman, M. (2015). Joint Land Certification in Madagascar: The Gendered Outcome of a “Gender-neutral” Policy. In: Archambault, C.S. and Zoomers, A. (Eds). Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. Routledge, pp. 110-126.
IIIWidman, M. and Hart, R. Joint Land Titling and Gender Biased Development
IVWidman, M. and Elofsson, K. Livestock Depredation and Costs of Large Carnivores in Sweden
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8406-6
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8407-3
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:E Economics, development, and rural sociology > E11 Land economics and policies
P Natural resources > P01 Nature conservation and land resources
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 502 Economics and Business > Economics
Agrovoc terms:gender, households, land tenure, land reform, carnivora, wild animals, predation, compensation, madagascar
Keywords:Gender, Land tenure, Land reform, Intra-household bargaining, Madagascar, Large Carnivores, Wildlife Damage Compensation
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2946
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2946
ID Code:12616
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Economics
Deposited By: Marit Widman
Deposited On:22 Sep 2015 14:09
Metadata Last Modified:03 Oct 2015 06:04

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