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Virus inactivation - evaluation of treatment processes for food and biowaste

Emmoth, Eva (2015). Virus inactivation - evaluation of treatment processes for food and biowaste. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2015:78
ISBN 978-91-576-8354-0
eISBN 978-91-576-8355-7
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Animal by-products and manure contain valuable plant nutrients that could be recycled
onto arable land, as fertiliser. If these materials contain pathogenic microorganisms, such as viruses, transmission to domestic animals, wildlife and the food chain could occur. Virus contamination of food may further occur during all production phases, from slaughter to packaging and distribution. To reduce virus hazards, control measures such as physical and chemical treatments could be applied. As many important food-borne viruses are non-culturable, model viruses are often used to evaluate the effect of virus inactivation methods.

As models for swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) in food treatments, feline calicivirus, murine norovirus and bacteriophages were evaluated. MS2 and ø6 were used as models for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in ammonia inactivation and composting of animal by-products, respectively.

In laboratory scale, controlling the factors considered to be the most important for virus inactivation, reduction of relevant and model viruses was assessed as a function of these factors. Recommendations regarding continuously measurable process conditions that should be kept over a certain time to reach sufficient viral reductions could be given, both for normal conditions and in an out-break situation. Bacteriophages could further be used as potential indicators for verification or validation in pilot or full scale processes.

Regimes to assure a 3 log10 reduction for Category 3 materials (2011/142/EC) for ammonia and heat treatment were determined. Further protocols based on pH and temperature to be kept during a certain time for management of HPAIV in outbreak situations were provided based on statistical evaluations of the laboratory results. In high pressure treatment of pork products, pressure and time were defined as critical control points for feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, used as models for HEV.

MS2 and ø6 were successfully used for verification of ammonia treatment and composting, respectively, in larger scale. In food treatments, MS2 was the most conservative indicator of noro and calicivirus inactivation in high pressure and intense light pulse treatments, and øX174 in lactic acid treatments, with potential as models for these types of viruses for verification in production scale.

Authors/Creators:Emmoth, Eva
Title:Virus inactivation - evaluation of treatment processes for food and biowaste
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :1 October 2015
Depositing date:1 October 2015
Volume:2015:78
Number of Pages:84
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ISahlström, L., Bagge, E., Emmoth, E., Holmqvist, A., Danielsson-Tham, M.-L. & Albihn, A. (2008). A laboratory study of survival of selected microorganisms after heat treatment of biowaste used in biogas plants. Bioresource Technology 99(16), 7859-7865.
IIEmmoth E., Ottoson, J., Albihn, A., Belák S. & Vinnerås, B. (2011). Ammonia disinfection of hatchery waste for elimination of single-stranded RNA viruses. Applied Environmental Microbiology 77(12), 3960-6.
IIIElving, J., Emmoth, E., Albihn, A., Vinnerås, B. & Ottoson, J. (2012). Composting for avian influenza virus elimination. Applied Environmental Microbiology 78(9), 3280-5.
IVEmmoth, E., Rovira, J., Rajkovic, A., Corcuera, E., Wilches, D., Dergel, I., Ottoson, J.R. & Widén, F. Inactivation of viruses and bacteriophages as models for swine hepatitis E virus in food matrices (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:SVA - National Veterinary Institute > A contributor is enlisted in SVA
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8354-0
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8355-7
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Additional Information:The studies performed in this thesis was performed at SVA, and was financed by the research programme Organic Waste-Resource or Risk in Sustainable Agriculture (PROWARR), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) and the Swedish Board of Agriculture (Paper I); European project Fluresist (SS PE-CT-2006-44311), Swehatch Flyinge AB (Paper II and III); Pathogen Combat-EU Food-CT-2005.007181 Project and NC Hyperbaric, Spain (Paper IV).
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:J Handling, transport, storage and protection of agricultural products > J15 Handling, transport, storage and protection of non-food or non-feed agricultural products
Q Food science > Q70 Processing of agricultural wastes
X Agricola extesions > X38 Human medicine, health, and safety
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Immunology (Immunology in the medical area to be 30110)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Food Science
Agrovoc terms:pathogens, viruses, waste management, ph, heat treatment, high pressure technology, light, lactic acid, ammonia, composting, models
Keywords:ABP Category 3, AIV, ammonia, bacteriophage, PPV, SVDV, HEV, thermal, high pressure, intense light pulses, lactic acid, virus inactivation
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2962
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-2962
ID Code:12664
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health
External funders:Jordbruksverket / Swedish Board of Agriculture and Swehatch Flyinge AB
Deposited By: Eva Emmoth
Deposited On:01 Oct 2015 08:36
Metadata Last Modified:23 Feb 2016 07:27

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