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Golf courses as a part of urban green infrastructure

Social aspects of golf courses and extensively managed turfgrass areas from nordic perspective

Eriksson, Fredrik and Eriksson, Tuula and Ignatieva, Maria (2015). Golf courses as a part of urban green infrastructure. I/In: 52nd World Congress of the International Federation of Landscape Architects, 10–12 June 2015, Saint-Petersburg.
[Conference Paper] (Unpublished)

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Originated in Scotland in the 15th century the game of golf started to be very popular first in Europe and later in all English colonies and finally, by the end of the 20th century, around the world. In the Nordic countries turf grasses and golf facilities are increasing since the second part of the 20th century. The Nordic golf federations have 900 000 members, playing golf on more than 900 courses that cover a total area of more than 58 000 ha. The popularity of golf is directly connected to the growing of market economy. In the end of the 20th –beginning of the 21 century, in the era of globalisation, golf started to be one of the very important symbols of business success and a very popular pastime game. We research golf courses within the interdisciplinary project “Lawn as the cultural and ecological phenomenon” run by scientists from SLU, Sweden and funded by the Swedish Research Council. One of the goals of this project was to study the gradient of different managed lawns from the most intensively managed to the more meadow like lawns. Golf courses in this sense can be seen as a microcosm itself where all types of planted grass communities (lawns) are presented (fairway, rough and high rough). Six golf courses, two courses nearby three cities (Uppsala, Malmö and Gothenburg) have been investigated. In these courses six holes have been sampled for both environmental and ecological parameters. After contacts and discussions with managers responsible for six golf courses in three regions a total number of 180 interviews been conducted. This research was supported by STERF (Scandinavian Turfgrass and Environmental Research Foundation). Last decade in Sweden there is a growing movement of creating multifunctional golf courses which can provide a whole range of ecosystem services such as improving biodiversity and providing recreational areas which are accessible for the public. STERF is one of the main promoters of this movement. The social part of this study has been focused on golf courses and their significance from the golf players' perspective. The main research question was “What is valued by golfers in their golf course environment when it comes to the green environment and ecological, cultural and social values”. The interviews indicate that the golf course and time spent on the golf course include so much more than the sport itself. For many players the visits at the golf course also act as experience of nature and beautiful surroundings as well as in a social context, a way to stay in shape (fitness) as well as a way to relax (recreation). Natural values that are often mentioned by the interviewees is quiet, peaceful environment (silence), the chirping of birds, butterflies and other small animals as well as shrubs, trees and plantings. Although the existence of "natural environment" is perceived as a positive example, said one of the golfers: "it is so beautiful with birch trees and meadow flowers available as background for this golf course". Golf players also enjoy things like silence, nice smells and sounds from the nature as well as presence of water (lake, pond and river). Golf courses have great potential to support multiple values, for biodiversity and carbon sequestration and social wellbeing of people. Further work in this project will include analysis of trade-offs and synergies between the different research fields.

Authors/Creators:Eriksson, Fredrik and Eriksson, Tuula and Ignatieva, Maria
Title:Golf courses as a part of urban green infrastructure
Subtitle:Social aspects of golf courses and extensively managed turfgrass areas from nordic perspective
Year of publishing :2015
Page range:474-478
Number of Pages:4
Place of Publication:Saint-Petersburg
Publisher:Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnic University Publishing House
ISBN for printed version:978-5-7422-4877-4
Publication Type:Conference Paper (Paper)
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:P Natural resources > P01 Nature conservation and land resources
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Landscape Architecture
Agrovoc terms:urban environment, turf, sociology
Keywords:landscape architecture
Permanent URL:
Alternative URL:https://ru.scribd.com/doc/270375967/52nd-IFLA-Word-Congress-2015-Proceedings
ID Code:12809
Faculty:LTV - Fakulteten för landskapsarkitektur, trädgårds- och växtproduktionsvetenskap
Department:(LTJ, LTV) > Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management (from 130101)
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:07 Sep 2016 11:34
Metadata Last Modified:09 Sep 2020 14:17

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