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Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial

Johansson, Daniel and Lee, Isabella and Risérus, Ulf and Langton, Maud and Landberg, Rikard (2015). Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial. PloS one. 10:3, 1-19
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122241

Abstract

Background
Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products.

Methods
In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m(2), were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB), fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB) or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB), Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy.

Results
Reported fullness was 16% higher (P< 0.001), and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P< 0.05) after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P< 0.007) between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P< 0.002) and 17% (P< 0.001) lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively.

Conclusion
Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber content and composition, and higher availability of insulinogenic branched chain amino acids.

Authors/Creators:Johansson, Daniel and Lee, Isabella and Risérus, Ulf and Langton, Maud and Landberg, Rikard
Title:Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial
Series/Journal:PloS one (1932-6203)
Year of publishing :2015
Depositing date:2 February 2016
Volume:10
Number:3
Page range:1-19
Number of Pages:19
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Refereed:Yes
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:Q Food science > Q04 Food composition
S Human nutrition > S30 Diet and diet-related diseases
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Food Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 303 Health Sciences > Nutrition and Dietetics
Agrovoc terms:rye, bread, glucose, insulin
Keywords:rye bread, glucose response, insulin response, microstructure
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3194
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3194
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
Web of Science (WoS)000352084800062
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0122241
ID Code:13011
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Food Science (until 161231)
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:02 Feb 2016 14:36
Metadata Last Modified:13 Feb 2016 14:24

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