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The introduction of Pinus contorta in Sweden

implications for forest diversity

Bäcklund, Sofia (2016). The introduction of Pinus contorta in Sweden. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2016:30
ISBN 978-91-576-8562-9
eISBN 978-91-576-8563-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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An increasing demand for forest-based products calls for further development and intensification of forest management. The use of non-native tree species in forestry is a common and expanding silvicultural practice worldwide but the effect of non-native trees on native biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is still poorly understood. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge about what effects large-scale introduction of a non-native tree species have on forest biodiversity over a chronosequence of forest stand ages. The non-native Pinus contorta and the two native tree species Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies were studied over three age classes (15, 30, 85 years old) of managed forests in northern Sweden to compare the stand- and tree structures, the cover and composition of functional groups of ground vegetation, and the species- and functional diversity of epiphytic lichens. Differences in ground vegetation cover were linked to both tree species and different stand and tree characteristics, but the differences were not consistent over the age classes. Stands of P. contorta had higher cover of vascular plants than the native tree species, and the cover increased with increasing stand age. Trees of P. contorta generally were of larger size than native tree species of comparable age, and also had greater branch surface area in young and middle aged stands, indicating more available substrate for epiphytes. However, the species richness of epiphytic lichens in P. contorta stands was comparable to P. sylvestris and the highest species richness was found in Picea abies stands. Although the forests shared many species, the composition progressively diverged with increasing forest age. Presence of dead branches, greater bark crevice depth and canopy cover generally had positive effect on functional trait diversity, and the reproductive strategy and growth form were the most influential traits on differences in functional diversity between tree species at early successional stages. Generally, the results suggest that abiotic and biotic factors common to all young managed forests act as environmental filters that cause similarly low levels of functional diversity and functional insurance among their epiphytic lichen communities. In conclusion, the planting of P. contorta does not create “green deserts” from the perspective of epiphytic lichens or understory vegetation. However, most stands of P. contorta are still younger than 50 years, and to assess the implications on forest diversity over a full rotation cycle, future studies should focus on describing diversity in old P. contorta stands.

Authors/Creators:Bäcklund, Sofia
Title:The introduction of Pinus contorta in Sweden
Subtitle:implications for forest diversity
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2016
Depositing date:8 April 2016
Number of Pages:59
IBäcklund, S., Jönsson, M.T., Strengbom, J. & Thor, G. (2015). Composition of functional groups of ground vegetation differ between planted stands of non-native Pinus contorta and native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica 49(2), article id 1321.
IIBäcklund, S., Jönsson, M.T., Strengbom, J., Frisch, A. & Thor, G. (2016) A pine is a pine and a spruce is a spruce – the effect of tree species and stand age on epiphytic lichen communities. PLoS ONE 11(1): e147004.
IIIJönsson, M.T., Bäcklund, S., Strengbom, J. & Thor, G. Differing patterns of lichen species and functional-trait diversity in managed forests. (manuscript).
IVBäcklund, S., Jönsson, M.T., Strengbom, J. & Thor, G. Tree and stand structures of non-native Pinus contorta in relation to Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed forests in boreal Sweden. (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8562-9
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8563-6
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F40 Plant ecology
K Forestry > K10 Forestry production
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Forest Science
Agrovoc terms:boreal forests, pinus contorta, introduced species, pinus sylvestris, picea abies, biodiversity, lichens, forest management, stand characteristics, undergrowth, tracheophyta, canopy, branches, sweden
Keywords:Boreal forests, Managed forests, Pinus contorta, Species richness, Lichens, Vascular plants, Canopy cover, Branch density, Life history
Permanent URL:
ID Code:13261
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
External funders:Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Deposited By: Sofia Bäcklund
Deposited On:08 Apr 2016 11:28
Metadata Last Modified:10 Sep 2020 13:41

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