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Zoonoses in rural Cambodia

a one health perspective on influenza and campylobacter

Osbjer, Kristina (2016). Zoonoses in rural Cambodia. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2016:46
ISBN 978-91-576-8594-0
eISBN 978-91-576-8595-7
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Zoonotic diseases, transmissible between animals and humans, make up the majority of emerging infectious diseases, posing a threat to public health and global food security. The emergence of infections is partly driven by close contact between humans and livestock, which is common in smallholder livestock farming in rural tropical areas. The aim of this thesis was to provide information on the animal-human interplay in rural tropical areas in general and in Cambodia in particular, focusing on influenza A virus and Campylobacter as examples of zoonotic pathogens.

Interviews were carried out in 300 rural households and samples were collected in the same households from humans and livestock, primarily chickens, ducks, pigs and cattle. In the households studied, a clear gender division in livestock responsibility was observed. Practices associated with zoonosis exposure were common, but the threat of zoonoses was not reported to be a concern. Furthermore, knowledge and awareness of zoonoses did not markedly reduce practices associated with increased zoonosis exposure, thereby revealing a knowledge-to-behaviour gap.

Sampled pigs and poultry had 1.3% overall prevalence of influenza A virus. Highly pathogenic subtypes were not found, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, seemed to occur frequently. Routine culture was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. In contrast, PCR proved more sensitive and C. jejuni, C. coli or both were detected in 8% of adults, 19% of children, 56% of chickens, 24% of ducks, 72% of pigs and 5% of cattle. Moreover, a number of household practices along the meat production chain, from livestock rearing and slaughter to meat consumption, were associated with human C. jejuni and C. coli positivity.

In conclusion, presence of pathogens with zoonotic potential and insufficient zoonosis management was shown on Cambodian smallholdings. The novel data presented on zoonosis epidemiology and household risk factors can help guide future interventions in zoonosis prevention, detection and control for improved health and livelihoods in rural tropical areas.

Authors/Creators:Osbjer, Kristina
Title:Zoonoses in rural Cambodia
Subtitle:a one health perspective on influenza and campylobacter
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2016
Depositing date:16 May 2016
Volume:2016:46
Number of Pages:90
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IOsbjer K, Boqvist S, Sokerya S, Kannarath C, San S, Davun H and Magnusson U ( 2015). Household practices related to disease transmission between animals and humans in rural Cambodia. BMC Public Health, 15 (476).
IIiOsbjer K, Sokerya S, San S, Davun H, Chheng K, Magnusson U, Olsen B, Berg M, Zohari S (2016). Influenza A in backyard pigs and poultry in rural Cambodia. Submitted manuscript.
IIIOsbjer K, Tano E, ChhayHeng L, Mac-Kwashie AO, Fernström L.-L, Ellström P, Sokerya S, Sokheng C, Mom V, Chheng K, San S, Davun H, Boqvist S, Rautelin H, Magnusson U (2016). Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia. Apmis, 124(6), 508-515.
IVOsbjer K, Boqvist S, Sokerya S, Chheng K, San S, Davun H, Rautelin H, Magnusson U (2016). Risk factors associated with Campylobacter detected by PCR in humans and animals in rural Cambodia. Submitted manuscript.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8594-0
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8595-7
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L73 Animal diseases
X Agricola extesions > X38 Human medicine, health, and safety
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 303 Health Sciences > Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Agrovoc terms:livestock, mankind, zoonoses, animal diseases, human diseases, households, smallholders, disease transmission, avian influenzavirus, campylobacter coli, campylobacter jejuni, pathogens, tropical zones, developing countries, cambodia
Keywords:Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Household practice, Human, Influenza A virus, Livestock, Risk factor, Rural household, Zoonosis
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3437
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3437
ID Code:13377
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
External funders:Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap / Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Deposited By: Ms Kristina Osbjer
Deposited On:16 May 2016 14:00
Metadata Last Modified:16 May 2016 14:00

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