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Nutrient economy in annual and perennial crops

comparisons between and within crop species in a sustainability context

Pourazari, Fereshteh (2016). Nutrient economy in annual and perennial crops. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2016:70
ISBN 978-91-576-8642-8
eISBN 978-91-576-8643-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of agricultural crops is related to crop nitrogen (N) uptake and thereby the amount of N that is removed from agro-ecosystems through crop harvest. As the N removal through harvest is linked to the fertilization requirements and the risk of N leaching, the crop NUE is an important aspect of sustainability in agriculture. Crops with different life strategies, photosynthetic pathways, and selection and breeding histories are expected to have different NUE; and the N content of the harvested crop fractions (e.g. total aboveground, grain or tuber) is linked to the N removed from the agro-ecosystem. Therefore, crop traits and desired end use (e.g. fodder, energy or industry use), are expected to impact the NUE and sustainability of crop production (sensu N removal). The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the variation in NUE between and within several crops commonly grown in Sweden, and to identify the most N efficient crops for specific end uses.

Various NUE components of maize, winter wheat, mixed perennial ley and potato crops were compared in field and pot experiments. In wheat and potato, the NUE was further investigated by comparing different varieties. The yield output per harvested N (i.e. N removal from agro-ecosystem) was assessed in relation to different end uses, i.e. crude protein and energy output (wheat, maize and ley) or amylose content (two potato varieties). In wheat, the concentration of plant N was further investigated in relation to the concentrations of other elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na) during two growth periods with different weather and after different preceding crops.

On a growing-season basis, the highest and lowest harvested biomass was found in potato and wheat, respectively. Ley produced moderate yields with moderate N concentrations coupled with a low N uptake, making ley the most sustainable (sensu N removal) crop for fodder production. In contrast, moderate biomass production in maize was associated with high N uptake and low yield N concentration, making maize the most sustainable crop for energy production. A potato line genetically modified (GM) for high tuber amylose content had a higher tuber yield and N uptake efficiency than its non-GM parent. Ancient wheat varieties responded weakly to increased N availability and had a higher N uptake efficiency and grain N concentration than modern varieties; suggesting that those varieties can be interesting material for breeding. Element concentration pattern in wheat was strongly affected by developmental stage and weather, but not by preceding crop; N displayed a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Overall, the assessment of the functional links between crop yield, yield quality and N removal from the agro-ecosystem can contribute to the development of a more sustainable agriculture.

Authors/Creators:Pourazari, Fereshteh
Title:Nutrient economy in annual and perennial crops
Subtitle:comparisons between and within crop species in a sustainability context
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :1 August 2016
Depositing date:8 August 2016
Volume:2016:70
Number of Pages:51
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IPourazari. P., Båth, B., Vico. G. & Weih. M. Nitrogen-based crude protein and energy ratios as sustainability indicators in wheat, maize and grassland ley grown for fodder or energy (Manuscript)
IIPourazari, P., Vico. G., Ehsanzadeh. P. & Weih. M. (2015). Contrasting growth pattern and nitrogen economy in ancient and modern wheat varieties. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 2015, 95(5): 851-860.
IIIPourazari, F., Weih, M. & Andersson, M. Yield and nitrogen economy of genetically modified high amylose and oil potato lines compared to their parents – effect of growing conditions (Manuscript).
IVWeih, M., Pourazari, F. & Vico, G. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather more than preceding crop (Submitted manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8642-8
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8643-5
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F61 Plant physiology - Nutrition
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
Agrovoc terms:plant nutrition, triticum aestivum, triticum turgidum, zea mays, trifolium pratense, phleum pratense, solanum tuberosum, nitrogen, use efficiency, crop yield, biomass, sweden
Keywords:nitrogen use efficiency, sustainability, stoichiometry, wheat, maize, ley, potato
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3582
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3582
ID Code:13551
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Crop Production Ecology
External funders:Wången AB
Deposited By: Fereshteh Pourazari
Deposited On:09 Aug 2016 06:12
Metadata Last Modified:09 Aug 2016 06:12
Project info:
Name:“ämnesstöd”,“KoN växtodling/AgResource”
Acronym:“ämnesstöd”,“KoN växtodling/AgResource”

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