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Mind the gaps!

from intentions to practice in animal welfare legislation and private standards

Lundmark, Frida (2016). Mind the gaps! Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Skara : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2016:95
ISBN 978-91-576-8692-3
eISBN 978-91-576-8693-0
[Doctoral thesis]

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There is a movement away from government governance of farm animal welfare towards more private governance. As a result, many farmers need to comply with both legislation and private standards simultaneously. The overall aim with this project was to study the intentions of different animal welfare regulations, and how effective these systems can be in improving animal welfare. The first study examined the intentions and values of various animal welfare regulations. The second study analysed the content and structure of different sets of Swedish regulations, and the last study focused on controls at the farm level, to identify common remarks and risk factors of non-compliance at dairy farms in official (CAB) and private (Arla) control.

We found that the aim of a regulation could be quite vague, and more ambitious than what is included in the detailed requirements. Policymakers had different views on what constitutes ‘necessary suffering’ and ‘natural behaviour’. These differences were seen both between countries, between regulations in a country, and between species in a regulation. The second study illustrated that private standards for dairy cows in Sweden partly covered the same requirements as the legislation, with the exception of the organic standard. However, due to vague wordings and different ways of measuring it was not always clear if the requirements were truly identical between the regulations. In the third study we identified that inspections focused on different areas; dirty dairy cattle being the most common non-compliance in official controls, and dirty cowsheds being most common during Arla audits. The highest risk for non-compliance was, however, similar for CAB and Arla; tie-stalls during winter. Organic farms had a lower risk for non-compliance compared to conventional farms.

This project identified the need to clearly define concepts and desired animal welfare outcomes in order to reduce the gaps between intentions, requirements and assessments within a regulation. Also gaps between different animal welfare regulations need to be illuminated with the purpose of either clarifying the differences or reducing the gaps provided that the aims are similar. The presence of both similarities and differences between different regulations and control systems puts extra high demands on transparency, predictability and clarity during inspections.

Authors/Creators:Lundmark, Frida
Title:Mind the gaps!
Subtitle:from intentions to practice in animal welfare legislation and private standards
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :September 2016
Depositing date:19 September 2016
Number of Pages:108
ILundmark, F., Berg, C., Schmid, O., Behdadi, D. & Röcklinsberg, H. (2014). Intentions and Values in Animal Welfare Legislation and Standards. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 27(6), pp. 991-1017.
IILundmark, F., Berg, C. & Röcklinsberg, H. (2013). ‘Unnecessary suffering’ as a concept in animal welfare legislation and standards. In: Röcklinsberg, H. & Sandin, P. (eds), The ethics of consumption – the citizen, the market and the law. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, pp. 114-119.
IIILundmark, F., Röcklinsberg, H., Wahlberg, B. &. Berg, C. (2016). Content and structure of Swedish animal welfare legislation and private standards for dairy cattle. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science, 66(1), pp. 35-42.
IVLundmark, F., Berg, C., Wahlberg, B. & Röcklinsberg, H. (2015). ’One animal is no animal’ – consequences of measuring animal welfare at herd level. In: Dumitras, D.E., Jitea, I.M. & Aerts, S. (eds), Know your food – Food ethics and innovation. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, pp. 31-35.
VLundmark, F., Hultgren, J. Röcklinsberg, H., Wahlberg, B. &. Berg, C. Non-compliance and follow-up in Swedish official and private animal welfare control of dairy cows. (Manuscript)
Place of Publication:Skara
Publisher:Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8692-3
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8693-0
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:D Administration and legislation > D50 Legislation
L Animal production > L01 Animal husbandry
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 505 Law > Law and Society
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 506 Political Science > Public Administration Studies
Agrovoc terms:animal production, auditing, standards, animal welfare, regulations, control systems, ethics, value systems, policies, legislation, sweden
Keywords:audits, animal law, animal welfare, assurance schemes, control, official, policymaking, private, standards, values
Permanent URL:
ID Code:13669
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Environment and Health
Deposited By: Frida Lundmark
Deposited On:19 Sep 2016 13:15
Metadata Last Modified:10 Sep 2020 13:41

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