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Conservation measures in Swedish forests

the debate, implementation and outcomes

Simonsson, Per (2016). Conservation measures in Swedish forests. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Umeå : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2016:103
ISBN 978-91-576-8709-8
eISBN 978-91-576-8710-4
[Doctoral thesis]

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In Sweden, a multi-scaled model for conservation of biodiversity in forests has been developed since the early 1990s. This model can be divided conceptually into three different levels; (i) retention forestry in the production forests; (ii) voluntary forest set-asides; and (iii) formally protected forests. This thesis explores the debate, implementation and outcomes in the forest of these conservation measures.

From being absent from public debate, forestry became heavily criticised during the early 1970s due to aerial spraying of herbicides to control deciduous trees on clear-cuts. The criticism of forestry and increased awareness of the problems concerned with forestry from a conservation perspective put strong pressure on the forestry sector. As a result, Swedish forestry and conservation policy was changed fundamentally during the 1990s and many new conservation measures were implemented. I have identified a number of driving forces behind this development which include the compilation of Red Lists, demands from foreign customers and forest certification.

I present, in a paper from 1997, management options which mimic natural forest disturbance regimes better than traditional forestry and I reflect on the implementation of these ideas. One important outcome of the new ideas during the 1990s is the practical application of retention forestry in Sweden. My results clearly show that young forests have become structurally richer since the introduction of the retention approach. The number of retention trees and amount of dead wood in young stands increased between 1997 and 2007.

I also compared the area extent, structural diversity of importance to biodiversity and stand characteristics between voluntary set-asides, formally state-protected nature reserves and managed production forests. My analysis shows that voluntary set-asides are an important complement to traditional reserves in terms of geographical location, size and structural factors important to biodiversity.

In conclusion a combination of historical perspective and landscape-level data give us the opportunity both to understand complex developments and to develop tools for future successful conservation measures in the Swedish forests.

Authors/Creators:Simonsson, Per
Title:Conservation measures in Swedish forests
Subtitle:the debate, implementation and outcomes
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2016
Depositing date:31 October 2016
Number of Pages:94
ISimonsson, P., Gustafsson, L. & Östlund, L. (2015) Retention forestry in Sweden: driving forces, debate and implementation 1968–2003. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 30, 154-173.
IIFries, C., Johansson, O., Pettersson, B. & Simonsson, P. (1997) Silvicultural models to maintain and restore natural stand structures in Swedish boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 94, 89-103.
IIIKruys, N., Fridman, J., Götmark, F., Simonsson, P., Gustafsson, L. (2013) Retaining trees for conservation at clearcutting has increased structural diversity in young Swedish production forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 304, 312-321.
IVSimonsson, P., Östlund, L. & Gustafsson, L. (2016) Conservation values of certified-driven voluntary forest set-asides. Forest Ecology and Management, 375, 249-258.
Place of Publication:Umeå
Publisher:Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8709-8
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8710-4
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:K Forestry > K10 Forestry production
P Natural resources > P01 Nature conservation and land resources
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Forest Science
Agrovoc terms:boreal forests, forest management, nature conservation, clear felling, stand characteristics, biodiversity, environmental organizations, forest certification, public opinion, forestry policies, sweden
Keywords:driving forces, forest history, retention forestry, natural forest dynamics, conservation, voluntary set-asides, forest certification
Permanent URL:
ID Code:13773
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: Per Simonsson
Deposited On:01 Nov 2016 09:26
Metadata Last Modified:10 Sep 2020 13:41

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