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Hidden complexity of lichen symbiosis

insights into functionality, reproduction and composition

Veera, Tuovinen (2017). Hidden complexity of lichen symbiosis. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2017:25
ISBN 978-91-576-8823-1
eISBN 978-91-576-8824-8
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Lichens are tremendously diverse physical outcomes of symbiotic relationships involving fungi, algae and bacteria. This thesis aims to give insight into the functionality, composition and reproduction of lichens from the fungal perspective. When previous results from a barcoding study were re-evaluated, no support for a free-living life phase of Cladonia mycobionts could be found. Genomic and transcriptomic data were used to identify the fungal partners in thalli, and a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method for the simultaneous visualization of the different fungi was developed. This approach led to the discovery of previously unknown basidiomycetes, Cyphobasidium spp., which are widespread components of the cortex of lichens in Parmeliaceae. In some cases, the abundance of Cyphobasidium correlates with previously unexplained phenotypic variation of the lichens. In the case example Bryoria capillaris, Cyphobasidium yeasts are the dominant cells in the cortex and hence the fungus that meets the eye when looking at the lichen. With the help of hologenomic data and FISH, it could also be shown that Tremella lethariae, a lichenicolous heterobasidiomycete known to induce galls on Letharia, is dimorphic and frequently occupies the cortex of asymptomatic Letharia thalli in its anamorphic state. Finally, genomic and transcriptomic data was used to investigate the mating system of the genus Letharia, which includes species with different reproductive strategies. All studied Letharia species have a heterothallic mating system, meaning they need to find a compatible mate in order to sexually reproduce. Thus, the variation of reproduction strategies within the genus cannot be explained only by the mating system of the Letharia mycobiont. Our data on the mating-type ratios indicates that no potential for sexual reproduction exists for the red-listed L. vulpina in Sweden, as only one mating type is found in the populations. The roles the secondary fungi have in the symbiosis is not yet fully understood. However, the results indicate that we should not automatically assume that some of the organisms are negligible for the function of the holobiont, or that all functions assigned to fungal origin are conducted by the primary mycobiont. Altogether, the findings presented in this thesis support the view of lichens as a community of bionts with complex interactions and calls for a more holistic approach for the study of the symbiosis.

Authors/Creators:Veera, Tuovinen
Title:Hidden complexity of lichen symbiosis
Subtitle:insights into functionality, reproduction and composition
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2017
Volume:2017:25
Number of Pages:40
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ITuovinen,V., Svensson,M., Kubartová,A., Ottosson,E., Stenlid,J., Thor,G., Dahlberg,A. (2015).No support for occurrence of free-living Cladonia mycobionts in dead wood. Fungal Ecology 14, 130-132.
IITuovinen, V., Ament-Velásquez,S.L., Bergström,L., Spribille,T., Vanderpool,D., Nascimbene,J., Yamamoto,Y., Thor,G., Johannesson,H. Mating system in Letharia: insights from genomic and population analyses of the mating-type loci (manuscript).
IIISpribille,T., Tuovinen,V., Resl,P., Vanderpool,D., Wolinski, H., Aime,M.C., Schneider,K., Stabentheiner,E., Toome-Heller, M., Thor,G., Mayrhofer,H., Johannesson,H., McCutcheon,J.P. (2016).Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens. Science 253, 488-492.
IVTuovinen,V., Ekman,S., Spribille,T., Thor,G., Johannesson,H. Yeast-forming tremelloid fungi in the cortex of Letharia lichens (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-8823-1
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-576-8824-8
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Genetics (medical genetics to be 30107 and agricultural genetics to be 40402)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Obsolete subject words > NATURAL SCIENCES > Biology > Organism biology > Morphology
Agrovoc terms:lichenes, symbiosis, tremellales, parasites, reproduction, mating systems, methods
Keywords:mycobiont, lichenicolous, FISH, Cyphobasidium, Tremella, mutualistic, parasitic
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3992
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-3992
ID Code:14100
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
External funders:Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lamms minne
Deposited By: Veera Tuovinen
Deposited On:28 Feb 2017 12:48
Metadata Last Modified:16 Mar 2017 11:09

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