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Levels and trends of flame retardants in the Swedish environment

Gustavsson, Jakob (2017). Levels and trends of flame retardants in the Swedish environment. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2017:90
ISBN 978-91-7760-070-1
eISBN 978-91-7760-071-8
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Flame retardants (FRs) are compounds used in, e.g., electronics and furniture to prevent fires. Due to leakage, FRs are widely spread in the environment and several FRs have been found to be environmentally persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. As a result, legacy FRs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been banned, and replaced by alternative FRs with often similar properties as the banned ones. The aims of this thesis were to develop an analytical method for the analysis of alternative FRs, to assess the current FR pollution in Sweden, and to improve the understanding of transport and fate of FRs within boreal catchments. In Paper I, gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electron impact (EI) ion source was concluded to provide the best overall sensitivity, for most analysed FRs, including halogenated FRs (HFRs), organophosphorus FRs (OPFRs) and PBDEs. Alumina was found to be the superior material for clean-up of FR-containing extracts. In Paper II, Oasis HLB eluted with dichloromethane (DCM) was concluded to provide the highest overall recovery for the extraction of FRs from water. A high influence (both positive and negative) of natural organic matter (NOM) on extraction recovery was observed for all extracted FRs when extracted from NOM-containing water. The influence appeared to be systematic and the formation of a NOM-sorbent layer and the ability of certain FRs to form strong hydrogen bonds are suggested to be key mechanisms when extracting FRs from NOM-containing water. The concentrations of FRs in Swedish rivers were investigated in Paper III. ΣFR concentrations ranged up to 170 ng/L (mean 31 ± 45 ng/L) with generally higher concentrations in the south (latitude<62°N) than in the north (latitude>62°N). Several OPFRs are suggested to undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Daily fluxes of FRs into the Baltic Sea were estimated to be 8.8 kg/day and comprised mainly tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), 3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TEBP-Anh), and 2,4,6-tribromo-phenol (TBP). This is presumably the first time environmental detection of TEBP-Anh is reported and it is suggested to originate from nearby airports. In Paper IV, elevated FR concentrations were observed in streams and rivers during spring flood and hydrophobicity fractionation was observed during snowmelt. HFR concentrations were generally higher at a mire site than at a forested site.

Authors/Creators:Gustavsson, Jakob
Title:Levels and trends of flame retardants in the Swedish environment
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
UNSPECIFIED

Flamskyddsmedel (FR) är kemiska ämnen som används i t ex elektronik och möbler för att förhindra bränder. På grund av läckage är många FR allmänt spridda i miljön och flera FR har konstaterats vara svårnedbrytbara i miljön, bioackumulerande och giftiga. Detta har lett till att t ex polybromerade difenyletrar (PBDEer) förbjudits, och ersatts av alternativa FR med ofta liknande egenskaper som de förbjudna FR. Målen med denna avhandling var att utveckla en analysmetod för att analysera i huvudsak alternativa FR, att utvärdera hur förorenad den svenska miljön är av FRs, samt att förbättra kunskapen om hur FR transporteras i boreala avrinningsområden. Slutsatsen från Paper I var att gaskromatografi (GC) kopplat till tandem masspektrometri (MS/MS) med elektronisk jonisering (EI) gav bäst känslighet vid analys av de flesta halogenerade FR (HFR), organofosfat-FR (OPFR) och PBDEer. Alumina konstaterades vara det bästa materialet för rening (clean-up) av extrakt som innehåller FR. I Paper II gav Oasis HLB (med diklormetan för eluering) de högsta utbytena vid extraktion av FR från vatten. Naturligt organiskt material (NOM) hade stor påverkan (både positiv och negativ) på utbytena av samtliga FR vid extraktion från vatten som innehöll NOM. Påverkan verkar vara systematisk och bildandet av ett NOM-sorbent lager samt förmågan hos vissa FR att bilda vätebindningar föreslås vara viktiga mekanismer vid extraktion av FR från vatten som innehåller NOM. Vid en undersökning av FR i svenska älvar (Paper III) sågs sammanlagda FR koncentrationer upp till 170 ng/L (medelvärde 31 ± 45 ng/L) med generellt högre koncentrationer i söder (latitud<62°N) än i norr (latitud>62°N). Det fanns indikationer på att flera OPFR kan undergå långväga atmosfärisk transport. Den dagliga transporten av FR till Östersjön uppskattades till 8.8 kg/dag, främst bestående av tetrabrombisfenol-A, 3,4,5,6-tetrabromftalat anhydrid (TEBP-Anh) och 2,4,6-tribromfenol (TBP). Detta är troligen första gången som TEBP-Anh detekterats i miljön och det föreslås komma från närliggande flygplatser. I Paper IV uppmättes förhöjda FR-koncentrationer i vattendrag under vårfloden och en hydrofobicitetsfraktionering skedde under snösmältningen. HFR-koncentrationerna var generellt högre i vattendraget som avvattnade en stor andel myrmark jämfört med det med enbart skog.

Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2 November 2017
Depositing date:2 November 2017
Volume:2017:90
Number of Pages:91
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IPlanned the study together with the co-authors. Had main responsibility for laboratory experiments, laboratory analyses, data handling, data analyses, interpretations, writing and submission.
IIPlanned the study together with the co-authors. Had main responsibility for laboratory experiments, laboratory analyses, data handling, data analyses, interpretations, writing and submission.
IIIPlanned the study together with the co-authors. Shared responsibility for sampling. Had main responsibility for laboratory analyses, data handling, data analyses, interpretations, writing and submission.
IVPlanned the study together with the co-authors. Had main responsibility for sampling, laboratory analyses, data handling, data analyses, interpretations and writing.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-7760-070-1
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-7760-071-8
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:T Pollution > T01 Pollution
X Agricola extesions > X50 Chemistry
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 104 Chemical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 104 Chemical Sciences > Organic Chemistry
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
Agrovoc terms:gas chromatography, mass spectometry, organic matter, hydrophobicity
Keywords:flame retardant, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, solid-phase extraction, natural organic matter, long-range atmospheric transport, seasonal change, hydrophobicity fractionation, boreal catchment
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4447
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4447
ID Code:14681
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: Jakob Gustavsson
Deposited On:02 Nov 2017 09:26
Metadata Last Modified:02 Nov 2017 09:26

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