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Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses

Tidåker, Pernilla and Kätterer, Thomas and Wesström, Therese (2017). Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses. Urban forestry & urban greening. 21 , 80-87
[Research article]

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Turf management on golf courses entails frequent maintenance activities, such as mowing, irrigation and fertilisation, and relies on purchased inputs for optimal performance and aesthetic quality. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, this study evaluated energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from management of two Swedish golf courses, divided into green, tee, fairway and rough, and identified options for improved management. Energy use and GHG emissions per unit area were highest for greens, followed by tees, fairways and roughs. However, when considering the entire golf course, both energy use and GHG emissions were mainly related to fairway and rough maintenance due to their larger area. Emissions of GHG for the two golf courses were 1.0 and 1.6 Mg CO2e ha 1 year 1 as an area-weighted average, while the energy use was 14 and 19 GJ ha(-1) year Mowing was the most energy-consuming activity, contributing 21 and 27% of the primary energy use for the two golf courses. In addition, irrigation and manufacturing of mineral fertiliser and machinery resulted in considerable energy use. Mowing and emissions associated with fertilisation (manufacturing of N fertiliser and soil emissions of N20 occurring after application) contributed most to GHG emissions. Including the estimated mean annual soil C sequestration rate for fairway and rough in the assessment considerably reduced the carbon footprint for fairway and turned the rough into a sink for GHG. Emissions of N20 from decomposition of grass clippings may be a potential hotspot for GHG emissions, but the high spatial and temporal variability of values reported in the literature makes it difficult to estimate these emissions for specific management regimes. Lowering the application rate of N mineral fertiliser, particularly on fairways, should be a high priority for golf courses trying to reduce their carbon footprint. However, measures must be adapted to the prevailing conditions at the specific golf course and the requirements set by golfers. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

Authors/Creators:Tidåker, Pernilla and Kätterer, Thomas and Wesström, Therese
Title:Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses
Series Name/Journal:Urban forestry & urban greening
Year of publishing :2017
Page range:80-87
Number of Pages:8
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
Agrovoc terms:turf, life cycle analysis, greenhouse gases
Keywords:Carbon footprint, Golf, LCA, Life cycle assessment, Turf maintenance
Permanent URL:
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
Web of Science (WoS)000397054000009
ID Code:14719
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:21 Nov 2017 10:20
Metadata Last Modified:15 Aug 2020 14:04

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