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Role of the cell wall in cell shape acquisition

Majda, Mateusz (2018). Role of the cell wall in cell shape acquisition. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Umeå, Sweden : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2018:10
ISBN 978-91-7760-160-9
eISBN 978-91-7760-161-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

The growth and development of an organism depend on the coordinated expansion and shape acquisition of individual cells. The epidermis, primarily controls morphogenesis as well as acts as an essential component at the interface with the environment. In plants, the cell wall, a polysaccharide network located outside the plasma membrane, ensures tight junctions between cells and determines the expansion rate and direction of each neighbouring cell, thereby determining cell shape and tissue morphology. Interestingly, plant cells are characterized by a great diversity of shapes, which vary from simple isodiametric forms to more complex structures such as in the puzzle-shaped pavement cells (PCs), displaying alternating lobes and necks, which are observed in the leaf epidermis. In our studies, we investigated the role of wall composition and mechanical properties in cell shape acquisition. We found that in Arabidopsis thaliana, cell wall integrity is essential for proper PC shape formation and that the mechanical properties of the cell wall between two mature PCs are heterogeneous. Further detailed examinations revealed the existence of a stiffness gradient across the curved cell wall at the lobes. We then showed that locally softer regions display an increased accumulation of specific pectic components such as galactans and arabinans, demonstrating their role in the regulation of wall mechanical properties. Furthermore, the appearance of these local heterogeneities precedes the cell morphological changes, indicating that the wall modifications are needed to initiate the lobing process. The cell wall composition was also studied in another species, Cinnamomum camphora (camphor tree), revealing a polarization of some cell wall components in PCs, and, uniquely, the presence of wall lignification in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. We also demonstrated that PC division pattern and development are correlated with an auxin gradient generated by directional transport, making a direct link with what is known on auxin stimulated acid growth and transcriptional response of genes controlling cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling. Altogether, our results support a major role for plant cell walls in cell shape acquisition. Our data reveal a striking dynamicity of PC cell walls, displaying the polarly distributed mechano-chemical properties required for lobing, which change according to the cell developmental stage. Furthermore, our work tightly links the master growth regulator auxin to the regulation of cell shape via a complex and dynamic control of cell wall remodelling.

Authors/Creators:Majda, Mateusz
Title:Role of the cell wall in cell shape acquisition
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2018
Depositing date:22 January 2018
Volume:2018:10
Number of Pages:78
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IMajda M., Grones P., Sintorn I-M., Vain T., Milani P., Krupinski P., Zagórska-Marek B., Viotti C., Jönsson H., Mellerowicz E.J., Hamant O., Robert S. (2017). Mechanochemical Polarization of Contiguous Cell Walls Shapes Plant Pavement Cells. Developmental Cell, 43 (3), pp. 290–304.
IIGrones P., Majda M., Robert S. Specific auxin distribution regulates lobe formation in pavement cells (Manuscript).
IIIMajda M., Robert S. The role of auxin in cell expansion (Review Manuscript).
IVMajda M., Robert S., Zagórska-Marek B., Mellerowicz E.J. Occurrence of secondary walls in leaf epidermal and mesophyll cells of camphor tree (Manuscript).
Place of Publication:Umeå, Sweden
Publisher:Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
ISBN for printed version:978-91-7760-160-9
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-7760-161-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F30 Plant genetics and breeding
F Plant production > F60 Plant physiology and biochemistry
F Plant production > F62 Plant physiology - Growth and development
K Forestry > K01 Forestry - General aspects
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Biophysics
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Cell Biology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Developmental Biology
Agrovoc terms:cell walls, cell elongation, galactan, Arabidopsis thaliana, Cinnamomum camphora, plant growth substances, pectins
Keywords:epidermis, pavement cells, cell walls, mechanics, auxin, polarity, pectins, galactan, arabinan, xylan, lignin, arabidopsis, camphor tree
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4713
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4713
ID Code:15263
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology (from 131204)
(S) > Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management
External funders:Swedish Research Council
Deposited By: Mateusz Majda
Deposited On:23 Jan 2018 12:55
Metadata Last Modified:02 May 2018 14:39

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