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Diseases on Christmas trees in southern Sweden and western North Carolina - with emphasis on Phytophthora root rot and Neonectria canker

Pettersson, Martin (2018). Diseases on Christmas trees in southern Sweden and western North Carolina - with emphasis on Phytophthora root rot and Neonectria canker. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Alnarp, Sweden : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2018:15
ISBN 978-91-7760-170-8
eISBN 978-91-7760-171-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Surveys and inoculation experiments were conducted in Sweden and North Carolina to investigate diseases of Christmas trees, focusing on Phytophthora root rot and Neonectria canker. Christmas tree production is a significant business in North Carolina and for individual growers in Sweden.
In North Carolina, six Phytophthora species were discovered on symptomatic Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), three of which were new to the region (P. europaea, P. citrophthora, and P. sansomeana). Phytophthora cinnamomi was the dominating species causing disease, but P. cryptogea also contributed significantly to Fraser fir loss. According to a questionnaire survey, 88% of Christmas tree growers had Phytophthora root rot in their fields. To combat Phytophthora root rot in North Carolina eastern white pine is planted on heavily infested sites as an alternative to Fraser fir. After screening eastern white pine families for P. cinnamomi tolerance, it is evident that families specifically selected for tolerance will reduce problems with Phytophthora root rot.
In Sweden, 16 disease-causing pathogens and six pests were discovered in a survey of Christmas tree plantations. Further studies focused on Phytophthora root rot and Neonectria canker. Five identified Phytophthora species were isolated from waterways and soil samples. In addition, P. megasperma was isolated from a young diseased Norway spruce (Picea abies). Inoculation tests with P. cryptogea, P. megasperma, P. plurivora showed minor disease development. The Phytophthora species found were not widespread and it is currently a minor problem for Swedish Christmas tree growers.
From Norway spruce trees with top-dieback, Neonectria fuckeliana was commonly isolated. On Nordmann fir, Neonectria neomacrospora was found. Inoculation studies using N. fuckeliana and N. neomacrospora on Norway spruce and Nordmann fir, respectively, demonstrated that both pathogens caused disease, while a second N. fuckeliana inoculation study found symptom development to be minor.
For rapid and reliable identification of N. fuckeliana in northern Europe, a species-specific PCR-based test was developed.

Authors/Creators:Pettersson, Martin
Title:Diseases on Christmas trees in southern Sweden and western North Carolina - with emphasis on Phytophthora root rot and Neonectria canker
Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :March 2018
Volume:2018:15
Number of Pages:78
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IPettersson M., Frampton J., Rönnberg J., Shew H.D., Benson D.M., Kohlway W.H., Escanferla M.E. and Cubeta M.A. (2017). Increased diversity of Phytophthora species in Fraser fir Christmas tree plantations in the Southern Appalachians. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 32(5), 412-420.
IIPettersson M., Frampton J. and Sidebottom J. (2017). Influence of Phytophthora Root Rot on Planting Trends of Fraser fir Christmas Trees in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Tree Planters’ Notes 60(1), 4–11. (Editor reviewed).
IIIFrampton J., Pettersson M. and Anne Margaret Braham. Genetic Variation for Resistance to Phytophthora Root Rot in Eastern White Pine Seedlings. (Submitted).
IVPettersson M., Frampton J., Rönnberg J., Brurberg M.B. and Talgø V. Presence of Phytophthora species in Swedish Christmas tree plantations. (Submitted).
VPettersson M., Frampton J., Rönnberg J. and Talgø V. (2016). Neonectria canker found on spruce and fir in Swedish Christmas tree plantations. Plant Health Progress 17(2), 202-205
VIPettersson M., Talgø V., Frampton J., Karlsson B. and Rönnberg J. (2018). Pathogenicity of Neonectria fuckeliana on Norway spruce clones in Sweden and potential management strategies. Forests 9(105), doi:10.3390/f9030105.
VIIPettersson M., Talgø V., Rönnberg J. and Brurberg M.B. Development and application of a real-time PCR assay for detection and identification of Neonectria fuckeliana from Norway spruce. (Manuscript).
Place of Publication:Alnarp, Sweden
Publisher:Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-7760-170-8
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-7760-171-5
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:K Forestry > K70 Forest injuries and protection
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Forest Science
Agrovoc terms:Christmas trees, Picea abies, Abies nordmanniana, Abies fraseri, plant diseases, Phytophthora, pathogenic fungi, forest pests, dieback, identification, diagnosis, PCR, North Carolina, Sweden
Keywords:Phytophthora spp., Neonectria spp., fir (Abies spp.), spruce (Picea spp.), imported seedlings, disease-causing pathogens, plant symptoms and pathogen signs, real-time PCR, management tactics, biosecurity
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4823
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4823
ID Code:15377
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre
Deposited By: Martin Pettersson
Deposited On:22 Mar 2018 13:12
Metadata Last Modified:23 Mar 2018 07:10

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