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Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grasslands and arable fields

ecological factors related to community composition and dynamics

Santos-González, Juan Carlos (2007). Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grasslands and arable fields. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2007:105
ISBN 978-91-85913-04-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

This thesis comprises four studies on the identification and ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in grasslands and in arable soils. Fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota are obligate symbionts in the roots of land plants where they form arbuscular mycorrhiza. The symbiotic association increases the ability of the host plant to take up nutrients from the soil via the extensive mycelia of the fungal symbionts, which have a larger and better distributed surface area for uptake than the roots alone. In turn, the fungi obtain carbohydrates that the plants produce. Arbuscular mycorrhiza are almost ubiquitous in grasslands, and therefore assumed to play a key role in ecosystem functioning. AMF taxa in the plant roots were identified with the use of different molecular techniques. Their phylogenetic affiliations were investigated and the significance of some relevant ecological factors shaping the AMF community structure was evaluated. In a seminatural grassland, we observed that AMF richness decreased in relation to increasing levels of nitrogen in the soil. The temporal patterns and species composition of the fungal communities colonizing the roots of two co-existing plant species were also shown to be different. We also found that AMF communities colonizing a single plant species varied between different localities within the same region. We used a long-term field experiment to show how different management practices affected the microbial soil biota. We compared the application of different organic and inorganic fertilisers, and their effect upon the AM fungi colonizing maize roots and the bacteria in root-associated soil aggregates. Some amendments induced dramatic changes in the richness and composition of the bacterial and the fungal communities. In conclusion, our experiments revealed evidence of complex ecological patterns in this cryptic but important group of fungi. Human management practices in grasslands and arable fields can shape the communities of both AMF and bacteria in the soil. Improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal niches of different taxa is a prerequisite in order to design manipulative experiments that can establish the link between taxonomical and functional diversity.

Authors/Creators:Santos-González, Juan Carlos
Title:Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grasslands and arable fields
Subtitle:ecological factors related to community composition and dynamics
Year of publishing :2007
Volume:2007:105
Number of Pages:30
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Santos JC, Finlay RD, Tehler, A (2006). Molecular analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising a semi-natural grassland along a fertilisation gradient. New Phytologist 172: 159–168. II. Santos-González JC, Finlay RD, Tehler, A (2007). Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in roots in a seminatural grassland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 5613-5623. III. Santos-González JC, Tehler, A, Finlay RD. Regional variation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities colonising the roots of Prunella vulgaris. (Manuscript). IV. Toljander JF, Santos-González JC, Tehler A, Finlay, RD. Community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria in the maize mycorrhizosphere in a long-term fertilisation trial. (Manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-85913-04-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae, fungi, rRNA, genes, grasslands, arable land, microbial ecology
Keywords:arbuscular mycorrhiza, Glomeromycota, rRNA gene, microbial ecology, grasslands, arable fields
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1837
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1837
ID Code:1545
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: Juan Carlos Santos-González
Deposited On:03 Oct 2007 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:12

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