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Climate and development at the third pole

dynamics of power and knowledge reshaping community forest governance in Nepal

Khatri, Dil (2018). Climate and development at the third pole. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala, Sweden : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2018:41
ISBN 978- 91-7760-222-4
eISBN 978- 91-7760-223-1
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Given the international climate objectives of adaptation and REDD+ being adopted in many developing countries there are growing concerns about their effects. This thesis seeks to investigate the implications of implementing climate objectives for community forestry governance. The thesis deals with the questions of how community forest management and uses are (re)shaped by the influence of governmental and non-governmental interventions and what effects the changing community forestry objectives may have on the interests of people reliant on forest resources. The thesis draws on extensive field studies and the author’s long-term engagement in development interventions and policy processes in Nepal. The analysis is primarily concerned about the dynamic of knowledge and power in (re)shaping local resource governance agenda and examines the way certain forms of knowledge and discourses get translated into interventions, transforming rules and practices in community forest management. The analysis conceptualizes power, where knowledge is a product as well as an influence. The analysis also pays attention to how knowledge and discourses are mobilized by actors towards certain ends. Findings shows that the community forestry objectives and priorities have shifted over time prioritizing certain resources such as timber as a source of revenue and undermining local needs of livelihoods and food security. Such shifts were found to have been influenced by a combination of factors, including broader socio-economic changes shifting the role of forest in peoples’ lives, scientific expertise and governmental and non-governmental interventions. I argue that the climate policy objectives that are superimposed on the established community forestry institutions can bring new forces that fuel the ongoing changes in forest management objectives and enhance the technical and bureaucratic influence on community forests management. The technical and bureaucratic nature of interventions under donor funded projects on climate change have reinforced the way forests are valued for monetary benefits. The projects studied appear to have limited effects in delivering the promise of supporting local livelihoods; instead the interventions, such as in REDD+ piloting, risk curtailing local rights and benefits. There is a risk that local interests in managing community forests will be subsumed to the technocratic logic of climate interventions. The development of climate-related policy and interventions need to pay greater attention to the dynamics of knowledge and power and safeguard local interests against those of local elites, experts and external organizations.

Authors/Creators:Khatri, Dil
Title:Climate and development at the third pole
Subtitle:dynamics of power and knowledge reshaping community forest governance in Nepal
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
Swedish

I och med antagandet av internationella klimatanpassningsmål och uppstarten av REDD+ i många utvecklingsländer växer oron angående deras effekter. Denna avhandling avser att utforska följderna av implementeringen av klimatmålen för byskogsförvaltning. Avhandlingen rör frågor kring hur byskogarnas förvaltning och användning (om)formas av statliga och icke-statliga interventioner och vilka effekter förändrade mål med skogsförvaltning kan innebära för människor som lever av skogens resurser och deras intressen. Avhandlingen bygger på omfattande fältstudier och författarens långa engagemang inom utvecklings- och policyprocesser i Nepal. Analysen fokuserar i första hand på dynamiken mellan kunskap och makt i (om)formandet av den lokala resurshanteringsagendan. Arbetet undersöker hur vissa typer av kunskap och diskurser översätts till åtgärder som (om)formar regler och praktiker i förvaltningen av byskogar. Analysen konceptualiserar makt så att den inkluderar kunskap både som en produkt och ett inflytande. Analysen uppmärksammar också hur kunskap och diskurser mobiliseras av aktörer mot vissa bestämda slutmål. Resultaten visar att målen och prioriteringarna för byskogsförvaltning har förändrats över tid genom att prioritera vissa skogsresurser som till exempel timmer som inkomstkälla och underminera andra lokala behov av försörjning och matsäkerhet. Sådana skiften fanns påverkas av en kombination av faktorer, inklusive breda samhällsekonomiska förändringarna som i sin tur förändrar skogens roll i människors liv, vetenskaplig expertis, samt statliga och icke-statliga interventioner. Jag hävdar att klimatmålen, som läggs på de etablerade institutionerna för byskogsförvaltning, kan pådriva pågående förändringarar i målen med lokal skogsförvaltning, samt öka det tekniska och byråkratiska inflytande över förvaltandet av byskogar. Den tekniska och byråkratiska karaktären av givarfinansierade klimatanpassningsprojekt omformade sättet som skogar värderas på mot mer monetära möjligheter. De studerade projekten verkar ha haft begränsad effekt i uppfyllandet av löftet att stödja lokal försörjning; istället har åtgärder, som till exempel REDD+, utgjort en risk för inskränkande i lokala rättigheter och förmåner. Därmed finns det en risk att lokala intressen i förvaltningen av byskogar kan inordnas under en mer teknokratisk logik av klimatåtgärder. Därför behöver utvecklingen av klimatrelaterad policy och åtgärder skydda lokala intressen mot den lokala elitens, experternas och de externa organisationernas intressen och bli mer uppmärksamma på dynamiken mellan kunskap och makt.

Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :June 2018
Depositing date:29 June 2018
Volume:2018:41
Number of Pages:115
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
IKhatri, D., Shrestha, K., Ojha, H., Paudel, G., Paudel, N. & Pain, A. (2017). Reframing community forest governance for food security in Nepal. Environmental Conservation, 44 (2), pp. 174-182.
IIMarquardt, K., Khatri, D. & Pain, A. (2016). REDD+, forest transition, agrarian change and ecosystem services in the hills of Nepal. Human Ecology, 44 (2), pp. 229-244.
IIIKhatri, D., Marquardt, K., Pain, A. and Ojha, H. (2018). Shifting regimes of access and control on forests: What might REDD+ implementation mean for community forestry? Evidence from Nepal. Forest Policy and Economics, 92, pp. 1-10.
IVKhatri, D. (under review in Climate and Development). Adaptation or ‘Development as usual’? Doing climate change adaptation under forestry and conservation projects in Nepal.
Place of Publication:Uppsala, Sweden
Publisher:Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:Euroscapes
ISBN for printed version:978- 91-7760-222-4
ISBN for electronic version:978- 91-7760-223-1
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Additional Information:This thesis investigates the ways the international climate change objectives of REDD+ and adaptation are designed and implemented in Nepal, and their effects on management and uses of community forests. The study analyses the dynamics of knowledge and power in (re)shaping community forestry objectives and practices. It is argued that the technical and bureaucratic nature of climate change interventions reinforce ongoing changes in forest management practices that prioritize monetary benefits while neglecting other forest uses that support local livelihoods.
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:K Forestry > K01 Forestry - General aspects
P Natural resources > P40 Meteorology and climatology
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 509 Other Social Sciences > Social Sciences Interdisciplinary (Peace and Conflict Research and Studies on Sustainable Society)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 509 Other Social Sciences > Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Agrovoc terms:community forestry, climate change, knowledge management, environmental policies, forest management objectives, Nepal
Keywords:Community forestry, climate change, policy translation, knowledge, power, REDD+, adaptation, Nepal
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4980
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-4980
ID Code:15564
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Urban and Rural Development
(LTJ, LTV) > Dept. of Urban and Rural Development
External funders:Swedish Research Council
Deposited By: Mr Dil B. Khatri
Deposited On:05 Sep 2018 10:24
Metadata Last Modified:05 Sep 2018 10:39

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