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Phosphorus leaching from Swedish arable organic soils

quantification and mitigation using biochar

Riddle, Matthew (2018). Phosphorus leaching from Swedish arable organic soils. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2018:50
ISBN 978-91-7760-240-8
eISBN 978-91-7760-241-5
[Doctoral thesis]

[img] PDF - Published Version


Organic soils account for 9% or ~225,000 ha of Sweden’s 2.5 million ha of agricultural land, with around half being intensively cultivated. This thesis examines the role of chemical and physical properties of arable organic soils in leaching of phosphorus (P) and whether these losses can be reduced by employing a metal-oxide coated biochar mitigation strategy. These issues were investigated by analysing two organic soils (organic 1 and organic 2) and two P-rich mineral soils (sand and loam) using laboratory and field-based methods.
In a rainfall simulation study using short soil columns from four 20-cm soil layers to 80-cm depth, the main location of P release and the concentrations of P leached from the selected organic and mineral soils were identified. The highest concentrations of P were found to be released from the 0- to 20-cm layer in both organic and mineral soils, with 70-90% in phosphate-P form. The highest losses occurred from organic 2, followed by the sand. Soil test total-P correlated well with total-P and phosphate-P in leachate from the rainfall simulation study.
A 17-month follow-up study using 90-cm long lysimeters with intact soil revealed that losses were highest from the organic soils, while the sand, known for its high P leaching, had relatively low leaching losses. The amount of total-P leached during the 17-month period decreased in the order: organic 2 (1.2 kg ha-1) > organic 1 (1.0 kg ha-1) > sand (0.3 kg ha-1) > loam (0.2 kg ha-1). Higher P losses from the organic soils were attributed to fewer sorption sites, humic matter competition with phosphate for those same sites and presence of preferential flow pathways (organic 1).
Evaluation of ‘Skogens kol’, a wood biochar coated with iron (Fe3O4; magnetite) and ‘Ecoera’, an agricultural residue biochar coated with magnesium (MgO/Mg(OH)2; periclase/brucite) under laboratory conditions revealed a maximum sorption capacity of 3.38 and 65.4 mg P g-1, respectively. Results from the 90-cm lysimeter study also showed greater reductions in P leaching using Mg-coated biochar, with phosphate concentration in leachate being reduced by up to 74% in one organic soil. Magnesium-coated biochar performance was worse in the mineral soils, probably due to greater numbers of sorption sites already being present in those soils. Efficiency of P removal in relation to Fe applied on the biochar was shown to be good in laboratory studies, but poor at field scale.
The two organic soils studied leached sufficiently high P concentrations and potential loads to contribute to eutrophication of surface waters. However, due to complex chemical and redox interactions with P, larger field-scale monitoring is required to identify whether the P losses measured in lysimeters are representative of those reaching surface drains.

Authors/Creators:Riddle, Matthew
Title:Phosphorus leaching from Swedish arable organic soils
Subtitle:quantification and mitigation using biochar
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :4 September 2018
Depositing date:4 September 2018
Number of Pages:83
IRiddle, M., Bergström, L., Schmieder, F., Kirchmann, H., Condron, L. and Aronsson, H. (2018). Phosphorus leaching from an organic and a mineral arable soil in a rainfall simulation study. Journal of Environment Quality, 47: 487–495.
IIRiddle, M., Cederlund, H., Schmieder, F. and Bergström, L. (2018). Magnetite-coated biochar as a soil phosphate filter: From laboratory to field lysimeter. Geoderma, 327: 45–54.
IIIRiddle, M., Bergström, L., Schmieder, F., Lundberg, D., Condron, L. and Cederlund, H. Impact of biochar coated with magnesium (hydr)oxide on phosphorus leaching from organic and mineral soils (submitted.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-7760-240-8
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-7760-241-5
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:P Natural resources > P35 Soil fertility
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 405 Other Agricultural Sciences > Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Agrovoc terms:phosphorus, organic soils, leaching, lysimeters, charcoal
Keywords:phosphorus, organic soil, leaching, lysimeter, soil column, biochar, magnetite, periclase, brucite
Permanent URL:
ID Code:15642
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
(S) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: Mr Matthew Riddle
Deposited On:05 Sep 2018 11:55
Metadata Last Modified:09 Sep 2020 14:17

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