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Circus and zoo animal welfare in Sweden: an epidemiological analysis of data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities

Hitchens, Peta and Hultgren, Jan and Frössling, Jenny and Emanuelson, Ulf and Keeling, Linda (2017). Circus and zoo animal welfare in Sweden: an epidemiological analysis of data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities. Animal welfare. 26:4, 373-382
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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.26.4.373

Abstract

Good animal welfare is crucial for the success of circuses and zoos. Epidemiological studies of animal welfare that investigate associations between animal-based measures (ABMs) and resource-and management-based measures are needed. However, due to the relatively low numbers of animals within each species kept at individual facilities, such investigations can be difficult to carry out. In this paper, we report the analysis of a multi-facility epidemiological study using data from all regulatory inspections of circus and zoo animals in Sweden for 2010 to 2014. Information from 42 inspections of 38 circuses, and 318 inspections of 179 zoos was analysed. For ABMs assessed during routine inspections of circuses (n = 14) and zoos (n = 61), 9.1 and 14.3% did not comply with requirements for general care of hooves/claws and coat, 10.0 and 8.6% for body condition, and 0 and 1.7% for animal cleanliness, respectively. In addition, the zoo checklist assessed whether animals were kept in appropriate groups, finding non-compliance in 17.0% of inspections. The most frequent non-compliant resource-and management-based measures at routine inspections of circuses were for space (41.7%) and exercise requirements (38.5%). For zoos, 29.4% did not comply with space followed by 28.8% for enrichment requirements. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, zoos that had inadequate or unsafe housing and space design, inadequate bedding, or failed to meet nutritional requirements, were more likely to be non-compliant with at least one ABM. The checklists should be improved to better assess welfare status by including more ABMs; benchmarking of risks and trends over time is also recommended.

Authors/Creators:Hitchens, Peta and Hultgren, Jan and Frössling, Jenny and Emanuelson, Ulf and Keeling, Linda
Title:Circus and zoo animal welfare in Sweden: an epidemiological analysis of data from regulatory inspections by the official competent authorities
Series/Journal:Animal welfare (0962-7286)
Year of publishing :2017
Volume:26
Number:4
Page range:373-382
Number of Pages:10
Publisher:Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:Centre of Excellence in Animal Welfare Science
ISSN:0962-7286
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Refereed:Yes
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Accepted version
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Clinical Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
Keywords:animal-based measures, animal welfare, circus, epidemiology, legislation, zoo
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-5066
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-5066
ID Code:15689
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
(VH) > Dept. of Animal Nutrition and Management
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:17 Oct 2018 07:32
Metadata Last Modified:02 Nov 2018 00:15

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