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Retention and mobilisation of trinitrotoluene, aniline, nitrobenzene and toluene by soil organic matter

Eriksson, Johan (2003). Retention and mobilisation of trinitrotoluene, aniline, nitrobenzene and toluene by soil organic matter. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Umeå : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Silvestria, 1401-6230 ; 266
ISBN 91-576-6500-1
[Doctoral thesis]

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For decades, the fate of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil environments has interested researchers around the world. Due to its toxicity and locally high concentrations in soils and sediments, a proper risk assessment requires detailed knowledge of the type of bonds formed between TNT (and its degradation products) and major soil components. In the work described in this thesis the effects of different soil constituents were investigated using a fractional factorial experimental design, and kinetic and equilibrium experiments. A major concern was the distribution of TNT between dissolved (DOM) and particulate soil organic matter (POM). Free TNT in solution, TNT bound to POM and to different size fractions of DOM were determined using ¹⁴C-labelled compounds, reversed-phase chromatography (RPC) and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The distributions of aniline, nitrobenzene and toluene between POM and DOM were also determined. These compounds have similar properties to TNT and its degradation products. The results conclusively showed that soil organic matter (SOM) is the most important variable for the binding of TNT and its degradation derivatives in acid, organic rich soils. In experiments involving γ-radiation, dialysis and varying concentrations of DOM and POM, it was shown that biologically mediated reductive degradation of TNT is crucial for the binding of TNT derivatives to DOM and POM. The reactive TNT derivatives mainly bind to DOM functional groups via a pH-dependent reaction. Smaller DOM molecules were found to be more reactive than larger ones. Non-degraded TNT was found to bind mainly to POM by a pH-independent hydrophobic partitioning process. Even though a relatively small fraction of TNT was bound to DOM in our experiments, compared to POM, continuous degradation of TNT over time will result in a large potential transport of TNT derivatives with DOM to ground and surface waters. The question remaining to be answered is: how bioavailable and toxic are TNT derivatives that are bound to DOM?

Authors/Creators:Eriksson, Johan
Title:Retention and mobilisation of trinitrotoluene, aniline, nitrobenzene and toluene by soil organic matter
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Silvestria
Year of publishing :February 2003
Number of Pages:41
ALLI. Eriksson J. and Skyllberg U. (2003) Determination of variables affecting sorption of aniline and trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil using a multivariate experimental design. (Manuscript) II. Eriksson J. and Skyllberg U. (2001) Binding of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its degradation products in a soil organic matter two-phase system. Journal of Environmental Quality 30, 2053-2061. III. Eriksson J., Frankki S. and Skyllberg U. (2003) Distribution of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, aniline and toluene between dissolved and particulate soil organic matter. (Manuscript) IV. Eriksson J. and Skyllberg U. (2003) Binding of aniline and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene to natural dissolved organic matter - a size-exclusion chromatography study. (Manuscript)
Place of Publication:Umeå
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6500-1
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:P Natural resources > P33 Soil chemistry and physics
P Natural resources > P34 Soil biology
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:explosives, pollutants, humus, desorption, soil sorption, chromatography, forest soils, acid soils, degradation
Keywords:TNT, trinitrotoluene, aniline, nitrobenzene, toluene, soil organic matter, humus, sorption, desorption, HPLC, size-exclusion chromatography, SEC, fractional factorial experimental design
Permanent URL:
ID Code:160
Department:(S) > Institutionen för skogsekologi (930701-061231)
Deposited By: Johan Eriksson
Deposited On:17 Feb 2003 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:01

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