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Reproductive and lactation performnace of daíry cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia

with special emphasis on pregnancy period

Lobago, Fikre (2007). Reproductive and lactation performnace of daíry cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2007:121
ISBN 978-91-85913-20-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

This thesis presents studies of the reproductive and lactation performance of dairy cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia, with particular emphasis on diagnosing and monitoring pregnancy. In an introductory study, early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored using ultrasonography. Prior to cloprostenol injection, plasma concentrations of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1), prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite), and progesterone (P4) varied from 8.4–40 ng/mL, 158–275 pmol/L, and 20.7–46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After foetal death and subsequent expulsion, the bPAG1 level began to decrease, though the decrease was small and gradual. The PG metabolite level started to display short lasting peaks within three hours, while the P4 level dropped sharply. A cross-sectional study was followed by two years of longitudinal observation to examine the reproductive and lactation performance of smallholder dairy cows in Selalle, central Ethiopia: these studies involved 300 and 24 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms, respectively. The geometric means of the calving-to-conception interval (CCI) and duration after last calving as determined in the cross-sectional study were 187 and 201 days in pregnant and non-pregnant cows, respectively. While, the means of calving interval (CI), CCI and first observed oestrus after calving as determined by the longitudinal observations were 516, 253, and 141 days, respectively. Production system, district (location), and suckling status influenced these intervals considerably. Based on milk P4 profiles, the mean first onset of luteal activity (OLA) after calving was 52 days and was significantly influenced by suckling and parity number. The prevalence of pre-weaning calf mortality was quite high, up to 17.4%. The mean lactation length was 54.4 weeks, while the mean milk yield for the first 43 weeks of lactation was 11.7 L/day for crossbred cows. Suckling status, season of calving, and parity number significantly influenced the daily milk yield. A further follow-up study described the serum profiles of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG), oestrone sulphate (E1-S), and P4 during gestation in both Borana and crossbred cattle. Accordingly, the PAG concentrations at the 4th week post conception were 1.5–5.5 ng/mL and 2.1–4.7 ng/mL in Borana and crossbred cattle, respectively, and increased progressively, peaking approximately at the time of calving. The serum E1-S concentrations at the 17th week of pregnancy were 0.3–2.6 and 0.9–5.7 ng/mL in Borana and crossbred cattle, respectively, and increased progressively until calving. Breed, parity status, dam body weight, foetal sex, and foetal birth weight (only for PAG) significantly influenced PAG and E1-S concentrations. The P4 concentrations at the 4th week of pregnancy were 3.2–5.1 and 1.7–8.9 ng/mL in Borana and crossbred cattle, respectively, and remained elevated throughout gestation. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy cows in the study area experienced prolonged CCI and CI, and thus, their reproductive performance was unsatisfactory. Moreover, the observed pre-weaning calf mortality rate is quite high. The serum PAG and P4 levels at the 4th and the E1-S levels at approximately the 17th week of pregnancy were well above the required levels for pregnancy testing in both Borana and crossbred cattle. Moreover, the observed serum profiles of PAG, E1-S, and P4 throughout gestation (and 10 weeks postpartum for PAG) were comparable to those reported for other breeds of cattle.

Authors/Creators:Lobago, Fikre
Title:Reproductive and lactation performnace of daíry cattle in the Oromia Central Highlands of Ethiopia
Subtitle:with special emphasis on pregnancy period
Year of publishing :November 2007
Volume:2007:121
Number of Pages:50
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Lobago, F., Bekana, M., Gustafsson, H., Beckers, J.F. & Kindahl H., 2006. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography. Acta veterinaria scandinavica 48, 23 (open access). (http//www.actavetscand.com/content/48/1/23). II. Lobago, F., Bekana, M., Gustafsson, H. & Kindahl, H., 2006. Reproductive performance of dairy cows in smallholder production system in Selalle, central Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 38, 333–342. III. Lobago, F., Bekana, M., Gustafsson, H. & Kindahl, H., 2007. Longitudinal observation on reproductive and lactation performances of smallholder crossbred dairy cattle in Fitche, Oromia region, central Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 39, 395–403. IV. Lobago, F., Bekana, M., Gustafsson, H., Beckers, J.F., Yohannes, G., Aster, Y. & Kindahl, H., 2007. Serum profiles of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein, estrone sulfate and progesterone during gestation and some factors influencing the profiles in Ethiopian Borana and crossbred cattle. Reproduction in Domestic Animals (In press).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-85913-20-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:dairy cattle, heifers, reproductive performance, pregnancy, endocrinology, pregnancy diagnosis, monitoring, lactation, ethiopia
Keywords:Endocrinology of pregnancy, pregnancy diagnosis/monitoring, reproductive/lactation performance, dairy cattle, Ethiopia.
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1913
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1913
ID Code:1633
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Deposited By: Fikre Lobago
Deposited On:19 Nov 2007 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:13

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