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The effect of calcium, citrate, and urea on the stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk: a full factorial designed study

Karlsson, Maria and Lundh, Åse and Innings, Fredrik and Höjer, Annika and Wikström, Malin and Langton, Maud (2019). The effect of calcium, citrate, and urea on the stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk: a full factorial designed study. Foods. 8 , 1-13
[Journal article]

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Abstract

The composition of raw milk is important for the stability of dairy products with a long shelf-life. Based on known historical changes in raw milk composition, the aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how possible future variations in milk composition may affect the stability of dairy products. The effects of elevated calcium, citrate, and urea levels on the stability of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk stored for 52 weeks at 4, 20, 30, and 37 ◦C were investigated by a two-level full factorial designed study with fat separation, fat adhesion, sedimentation, color, pH, ethanol stability, and heat coagulation time as response variables. The results showed that elevated level of calcium lowered the pH, resulting in sedimentation and significantly decreased stability. Elevated level of citrate was associated with color, but the stability was not improved compared to the reference UHT milk. Elevated levels of urea or interaction terms had little effect on the stability of UHT milk. Storage conditions significantly affected the stability. In conclusion, to continue produce dairy products with high stability, the dairy industry should make sure the calcium content of raw milk is not too high and that storage of the final product is appropriate.

Authors/Creators:Karlsson, Maria and Lundh, Åse and Innings, Fredrik and Höjer, Annika and Wikström, Malin and Langton, Maud
Title:The effect of calcium, citrate, and urea on the stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk: a full factorial designed study
Year of publishing :2019
Volume:8
Page range:1-13
Number of Pages:13
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2304-8158
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Refereed:Yes
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Food Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 211 Other Engineering and Technologies > Food Engineering
Keywords:UHT milk, interaction effects, calcium, citrate, urea, storage temperature, storage time, shelf-life
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-101595
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-101595
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/foods8090418
ID Code:16335
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Department of Molecular Sciences
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:30 Sep 2019 09:52
Metadata Last Modified:04 Sep 2020 16:58

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