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Plant sterol metabolism with emphasis on glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potato

Arnqvist, Lisa (2007). Plant sterol metabolism with emphasis on glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potato. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2007:128
ISBN 978-91-85913-27-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites present within species of the family Solanaceae. They are toxic to humans and animals, and it is important to keep the levels in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers below the safe limit for consumption. Glycoalkaloids are derived from sterols, which are important components of cell membranes. The sterol composition in plants is complex, and varies between species. For instance, cholesterol is a minor sterol in most plants, but a major one in the Solanaceae. Cholesterol has been suggested as a metabolic precursor to the glycoalkaloids in potato, although the biosynthetic pathway is largely unknown. To investigate the role of sterols in glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, potato plants overexpressing a type 1 sterol methyltransferase (SMT1) were generated. SMT1 plants displayed an increased level of alkylated sterols, while the level of the non-alkylated sterol cholesterol was decreased. Along with this there was a reduction of glycoalkaloid levels. To gain more insight into the sterol biosynthesis in plants, Arabidopsis lines were generated overexpressing CYP710A1 and CYP710A4, encoding enzymes potentially involved in stigmasterol synthesis. Both transformants contained increased levels of stigmasterol and a decrease in the level of sitosterol. CYP710A1 transformants also displayed increased levels of esterified sterols, suggesting that an increased stigmasterol level alone is sufficient to stimulate esterification of other sterols. The possibility of downregulating cholesterol and glycoalkaloid levels by increasing cholesterol catabolism was investigated in plants by expression of four mouse cDNAs encoding enzymes hydroxylating cholesterol. In Arabidopsis, plant growth and sterol/steroid levels were altered, indicating that the introduced hydroxysterol synthesis affected regulatory steps in steroid homeostasis. However, an increased level of hydroxylated cholesterol in potato had no effect on glycoalkaloid levels. A sterol Δ24-reductase was downregulated in transgenic potato. Transformants displayed increased levels of Δ24-sterols, while the levels of 24-saturated sterols such as cholesterol were decreased, as was their glycoalkaloid level. This reveals a new role for this type of enzymes in plant steroid metabolism. Taken together, the results show that both cholesterol and glycoalkaloid biosynthesis can be downregulated in transgenic plants, and support the view of cholesterol as a metabolic precursor in glycoalkaloid biosynthesis.

Authors/Creators:Arnqvist, Lisa
Title:Plant sterol metabolism with emphasis on glycoalkaloid biosynthesis in potato
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2007
Number of Pages:50
ALLI. Arnqvist, L., Dutta, P.C., Jonsson, L., Sitbon, F. 2003. Reduction of cholesterol and glycoalkaloid levels in transgenic potato plants by overexpression of a type 1 sterol methyltransferase cDNA. Plant Physiol. 131, 1792-1799. II. Arnqvist, L., Persson, M., Jonsson, L., Dutta, P., Sitbon, F. 2007. Overexpression of CYP710A1 and CYP710A4 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants increases the level of stigmasterol at the expense of sitosterol. Planta DOI 10.1007/s00425-007-0618-8. III. Arnqvist, L., Nahar, N., Dalman, K., Jonsson, L., Dutta, P., Sitbon, F. Synthesis of hydroxylated sterols in transgenic Arabidopsis plants alters growth and steroid metabolism. (manuscript). IV. Arnqvist, L., Dalman, K., Jonsson, L., Dutta, P., Sitbon, F. Decreased glycoalkaloid level in transgenic potato plants by antisense expression of a sterol Δ24 -reductase. (manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:Z - SLU - Library > Odla mera
ISBN for printed version:978-91-85913-27-5
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:solanum tuberosum, arabidopsis thaliana, sterols, glycoalkaloids, metabolism, secondary metabolites, biosynthesis, enzyme activity
Keywords:plant sterol, glycoalkaloid, Solanum tuberosum, Arabidopsis thaliana, secondary metabolism
Permanent URL:
ID Code:1634
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics (until 131231)
Deposited By: Lisa Arnqvist
Deposited On:16 Nov 2007 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:22 Mar 2015 15:13

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