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Stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk

the effect of raw milk quality, storage temperature and storage time

Karlsson, Maria (2019). Stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2019:68
ISBN 978-91-7760-454-9
eISBN 978-91-7760-455-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

The composition and properties of raw milk are important for the stability of dairy products, especially for products with long shelf-life, e.g. ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk. In the UHT process, milk is subjected to temperatures above 135 °C for a few seconds, resulting in a product that can be stored for several months at ambient temperature.

This thesis investigated how natural variations in the composition and properties of raw milk affected the stability of UHT milk during long-term storage at different temperatures. For this purpose, samples of unprocessed raw milk as well as the resulting UHT milk were obtained every month for one year from a commercial dairy plant. Additionally, in a full factorial experiment, milk was modified with respect to levels of calcium, citrate and urea to investigate the effect on the stability of the resulting UHT milk.

The quality traits analysed in the raw milk included composition, bacterial counts, enzymatic activity, colour and measures of stability, i.e. heat coagulation time (HCT) and alcohol test. During storage of UHT milk, sensory attributes and stability measures were analysed. Multivariate statistics was used to identify batches of milk showing similarities with respect to total variation.
There were only small natural variations in the composition and properties of raw milk. Elevated calcium content, and associated decrease in pH, had a strong negative effect on the stability of UHT milk. Higher concentrations of citrate and urea in milk did not affect the stability compared with unmodified reference UHT milk.

Storage temperature correlated with colour and pH, whereas storage time correlated with creaming, sedimentation and HCT. Cold (4 °C) or ambient (20 °C) storage gave the longest shelf-life, limited by sedimentation and deviating taste. In UHT milk stored at 30 or 37 °C, the shelf-life was limited by several parameters, including colour, taste and sedimentation. Changes in the stability of UHT milk during storage are suggested to be explained by known mechanism

Knowledge of how the composition and properties of raw milk affect the stability of the resulting product can aid the dairy industry to more accurately predict the shelf-life of UHT milk. Better understanding of how storage conditions affect the shelf-life of UHT milk can provide useful guidance to consumers on appropriate storage temperature.

Authors/Creators:Karlsson, Maria
Title:Stability of ultra-high temperature treated milk
Subtitle:the effect of raw milk quality, storage temperature and storage time
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
Swedish

Mjölkråvarans sammansättning och egenskaper är viktiga för mjölkprodukternas stabilitet och hållbarhet, särskilt för produkter med lång hållbarhet, t.ex. ultra-hög-temperatur (UHT) behandlad mjölk. I UHT-processen värms mjölk till över 135 °C i några sekunder, vilket resulterar i en produkt med en hållbarhet på flera månader vid förvaring i rumstemperatur.

I denna avhandling undersöktes hur naturliga variationer i mjölkråvarans samman-sättning och egenskaper påverkade stabiliteten hos UHT-mjölk under långtidslagring vid olika temperaturer. Under ett helt år erhölls varje månad färska prover på mjölkråvaran samt den resulterande UHT-mjölken från ett mejeri. I en experimentell studie undersöktes även effekten av att modifiera mjölkråvaran avseende nivåerna av kalcium, citrat och urea på stabiliteten hos den resulterande UHT-mjölken.

Mjölkråvaran analyserades bl.a. med avseende på sammansättning, bakterier, enzymatisk aktivitet, färg och stabilitet, dvs. värmestabilitet (HCT) och alkoholtest. Under lagringen av UHT-mjölken analyserades sensoriska attribut och stabilitet. Multivariata statistiska metoder användes för att identifiera batcher av mjölk som uppvisade likheter med avseende på den totala variationen.

Vi fann endast små naturliga variationer i mjölkråvaran. Modifierad råvara med mer kalcium och lägre pH hade en stark negativ effekt på UHT-mjölkens stabilitet. En mjölkråvara med högre innehåll av citrat och urea påverkade inte stabiliteten jämfört med UHT-mjölk tillverkad av icke-modifierad mjölkråvara.

Lagringstemperatur korrelerade med färg och pH, medan lagringstid korrelerade med fettseparation, sedimentering och HCT. Förvaring i kyl (4 °C) eller rumstemperatur (20 °C) gav den längsta hållbarheten och begränsades av sedimentering och avvikande smak. Vid förvaring vid 30 eller 37 °C begränsades hållbarheten av flera parametrar, inklusive färg, smak och sedimentering. Förändringar i stabilitet under lagring av UHT-mjölken kunde förklaras med olika kända mekanismer.

Kunskap om hur sammansättningen och egenskaperna hos mjölkråvaran påverkar stabiliteten hos den resulterande produkten kan hjälpa mejeriindustrin att förutsäga hållbarheten på UHT-mjölk. Ökad förståelse för lagringsförhållandenas betydelse för UHT-mjölkens hållbarhet kan ge konsumenter vägledning om lämplig förvaringstemperatur.

Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2019
Number:2019:68
Number of Pages:80
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
1Karlsson, M.A.*, Langton, M., Innings, F., Wikström, M. & Lundh, Å.S. (2017). Short communication: Variation in the composition and properties of Swedish raw milk for ultra-high-temperature processing. Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 100 (4), pp. 2582–2590. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-12185
2Karlsson, M.A.*, Langton, M., Innings, F., Malmgren, B., Höjer, A., Wikström, M. & Lundh, Å. (2019). Changes in stability and shelf-life of ultra-high temperature treated milk during long term storage at different temperatures. Heliyon, vol. 5 (9), p. e02431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02431
3Karlsson, M.A.*, Lundh, Å., Innings, F., Höjer, A., Wikström, M. & Langton, M. (2019). The Effect of Calcium, Citrate, and Urea on the Stability of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Milk: A Full Factorial Designed Study. Foods, vol. 8 (9), p. 418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090418
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-7760-454-9
ISBN for electronic version:978-91-7760-455-6
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:J Handling, transport, storage and protection of agricultural products > J13 Handling, transport, storage and protection of animal products
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 104 Chemical Sciences
Keywords:raw milk, UHT milk, shelf-life, long-term storage, colour, sedimentation, creaming, heat coagulation time, ethanol stability
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-102566
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-102566
ID Code:16429
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Department of Molecular Sciences
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:14 Nov 2019 11:28
Metadata Last Modified:14 Nov 2019 12:15

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