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Removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant: Long-term performance of granular activated carbon (GAC) and influence of flow-rate

Belkouteb, Nadine and Franke, Vera and McCleaf, Philip and Köhler, Stephan and Ahrens, Lutz (2020). Removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant: Long-term performance of granular activated carbon (GAC) and influence of flow-rate. Water Research. 182 , 115913 , 1-10
[Journal article]

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Abstract

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been ubiquitously detected in drinking water whichposes a risk for human exposure. In this study, the treatment efficiency for the removal of 15 PFASs was examined in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in the City of Uppsala, Sweden, over aperiod of two years (2015-2017). Removal of the five frequently detected PFASs was influenced by the total operation time of granular activated carbon (GAC)filters, GAC type and surface loading rate. The average removal efficiency of PFASs ranged from 92 to 100% for “young” GAC filters and decreased to 7.0-100% for “old” GAC filters (up to 357 operation days, 29 300 bed volumes (BV) treated). Flow-rates were adjusted in two full-scale GAC filters of different operational age to examine the removal of PFAS and organic matter depending on GAC operational age and operating flow. The decrease inflow-rate by10 L s(-1) from 39 to 29 L s(-1) led to an average increase of 14% and 6.5% in total PFAS removal efficiency for an “old”(264 operation days, 21 971 BV treated) and a “young” GAC filter (63 operation days, 5 725 BV treated), respectively. A cost-analysis for various operation scenarios illustrated the dominating effect of treatment goals and costs for GAC regeneration on overall GAC operation costs. The unit costs for GAC filters ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 E(-3) water treated and 0.020-0.025Vm E(-3) water treated for a treatment goal of 10 ng L(-1)and 85 ng L(-1), respectively, for Sigma(11)PFAS. Furthermore, it was concluded that prolonging the GAC service life by lowering the flow-rates after reaching the treatment goal could lead to a 26% cost-deduction. The results and methods presented in this study give drinking water providers valuable toolsfor the operation of a full-scale treatment train for the removal of PFAS in contaminated raw water.

Authors/Creators:Belkouteb, Nadine and Franke, Vera and McCleaf, Philip and Köhler, Stephan and Ahrens, Lutz
Title:Removal of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant: Long-term performance of granular activated carbon (GAC) and influence of flow-rate
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:182
Article number:115913
Number of Pages:10
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0043-1354
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 208 Environmental Biotechnology > Water Treatment
Keywords:PFAS, PFOS, PFOA, PFC, Granular activated carbon, Drinking water treatment
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-106628
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-106628
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1016/j.watres.2020.115913
ID Code:17215
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:10 Jul 2020 08:04
Metadata Last Modified:30 Jul 2020 21:21

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