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Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during breastfeeding-A systematic review

Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin and Ekstrom-Bergstrom, Anette and Buckley, Sarah and Massarotti, Claudia and Pajalic, Zada and Luegmair, Karolina and Kotlowska, Alicia and Lengler, Luise and Olza, Ibone and Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne and Leahy-Warren, Patricia and Hadjigeorgiu, Eleni and Villarmea, Stella and Dencker, Anna (2020). Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during breastfeeding-A systematic review. PLoS ONE. 15 , e0235806 , 1-38
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Abstract

Introduction Oxytocin is a key hormone in breastfeeding. No recent review on plasma levels of oxytocin in response to breastfeeding is available.
Materials and methods Systematic literature searches on breastfeeding induced oxytocin levels were conducted 2017 and 2019 in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Data on oxytocin linked effects and effects of medical interventions were included if available.
Results We found 29 articles that met the inclusion criteria. All studies had an exploratory design and included 601 women. Data were extracted from the articles and summarised in tables. Breastfeeding induced an immediate and short lasting (20 minutes) release of oxytocin. The release was pulsatile early postpartum (5 pulses/10 minutes) and coalesced into a more protracted rise as lactation proceeded. Oxytocin levels were higher in multiparous versus primiparous women. The number of oxytocin pulses during early breastfeeding was associated with greater milk yield and longer duration of lactation and was reduced by stress. Breastfeeding-induced oxytocin release was associated with elevated prolactin levels; lowered ACTH and cortisol (stress hormones) and somatostatin (a gastrointestinal hormone) levels; enhanced sociability; and reduced anxiety, suggesting that oxytocin induces physiological and psychological adaptations in the mother. Mechanical breast pumping, but not bottle-feeding was associated with oxytocin and prolactin release and decreased stress levels. Emergency caesarean section reduced oxytocin and prolactin release in response to breastfeeding and also maternal mental adaptations. Epidural analgesia reduced prolactin and mental adaptation, whereas infusions of synthetic oxytocin increased prolactin and mental adaptation. Oxytocin infusion also restored negative effects induced by caesarean section and epidural analgesia.
Conclusions Oxytocin is released in response to breastfeeding to cause milk ejection, and to induce physiological changes to promote milk production and psychological adaptations to facilitate motherhood. Stress and medical interventions during birth may influence these effects and thereby adversely affect the initiation of breastfeeding.

Authors/Creators:Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin and Ekstrom-Bergstrom, Anette and Buckley, Sarah and Massarotti, Claudia and Pajalic, Zada and Luegmair, Karolina and Kotlowska, Alicia and Lengler, Luise and Olza, Ibone and Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne and Leahy-Warren, Patricia and Hadjigeorgiu, Eleni and Villarmea, Stella and Dencker, Anna
Title:Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during breastfeeding-A systematic review
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:15
Article number:e0235806
Number of Pages:38
Publisher:PLoS
ISSN:1932-6203
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 302 Clinical Medicine > Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-107750
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-107750
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0235806
Web of Science (WoS)000560393300012
ID Code:17549
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Environment and Health
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:06 Oct 2020 07:37
Metadata Last Modified:06 Oct 2020 07:37

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