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Acrylamide in bread

precursors, formation and reduction

Mustafa, Arwa (2008). Acrylamide in bread. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2008:19
ISBN 978-91-85913-52-7
[Doctoral thesis]

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Acrylamide is found at concentrations up to a few mg/kg in a wide range of foods, mainly carbohydrate-rich foods subjected to high thermal processing. Acrylamide is formed in foods via the Maillard reaction with free asparagine and reducing sugars as the precursors, with the former generally being limiting in cereal-based products. Bread is among the products that can contain high levels of acrylamide, so this thesis investigated factors affecting acrylamide formation in bread. A robust extraction procedure coupled with the chromatographic method from Ez-Faast® technology was set up and validated to analyse free amino acids in cereals, cereal fractions and products. Free amino acids were found to be mostly concentrated in the bran fraction. Asparagine was a major free amino acids in the cereals analysed. A major decrease in asparagine was found to occur during yeast fermentation. The content of acrylamide in rye crispbread was found to be mainly controlled by the time and temperature of baking and the level of asparagine present, but not by the fructose level. Studies on interactions between added asparagine, glycine and fermentation time on the formation of acrylamide in soft wheat bread showed that fermentation time has a reducing effect on acrylamide formation, which was governed by the level of asparagine present in the system. Glycine addition significantly decreased acrylamide depending on the initial levels of asparagine in the dough, and increased the colour intensity of the bread. Tests on the effect of storage conditions on acrylamide content showed that storage temperature affects its disappearance from the bread. Acrylamide levels were more stable at cold temperatures up +6 °C. A significant decrease in acrylamide was found at warmer temperatures (+20 and +40 °C). Reduction of acrylamide was greater in closed containers, with most reduction taking place in the early stages of warm storage. Increased moisture content resulted in a major decrease in the acrylamide content during storage.

Authors/Creators:Mustafa, Arwa
Title:Acrylamide in bread
Subtitle:precursors, formation and reduction
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2008
Number of Pages:58
ALLI. Mustafa, A., Åman, P., Andersson, R. & Kamal-Eldin, A. 2007. Analysis of free amino acids in cereal products. Food Chemistry 105, 317-324 II. Mustafa, A., Andersson, R., Rosén, J., Kamal-Eldin, A. & Åman, P. 2005. Factors influencing acrylamide content and color in rye crisp bread. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 5985-5989. III. Mustafa, A., Fink, M., Kamal-Eldin, A., Rosén, J., Andersson, R. & Åman, P. 2008. Interaction effects of fermentation time and added asparagine and glycine on acrylamide content in yeast-leavened bread. Submitted. IV. Mustafa, A., Kamal-Eldin, A., Petersson, E.V., Andersson, R. & Åman, P. 2008. Effect of extraction pH on acrylamide content in fresh and stored rye crispbread. Accepted for publication by Journal of Food Composition and Analysis V. Mustafa, A., Andersson, R., Hellenäs, K. E., Åman, P. & Kamal-Eldin, A. 2008. Moisture affects acrylamide reduction during storage in model studies of rye crispbread. Manuscript
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-85913-52-7
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:acrylamide, bread, baking, asparagine, fermentation, free amino acids, glycine (amino acid), storage, temperature, moisture content
Keywords:acrylamide, asparagine, bread, fermentation, free amino acids, glycine, moisture content, precursors, storage, time and temperature
Permanent URL:
ID Code:1789
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Food Science (until 161231)
Deposited By: Arwa Mustafa
Deposited On:19 Aug 2008 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:14

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