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Field Testing a Pilot-Scale System for Alkaline Dehydration of Source-Separated Human Urine: A Case Study in Finland

Simha, Prithvi and Karlsson, Caroline and Viskari, Eeva-Liisa and Malila, Riikka and Vinnerås, Björn (2020). Field Testing a Pilot-Scale System for Alkaline Dehydration of Source-Separated Human Urine: A Case Study in Finland. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 8 , 570637
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Abstract

Alkaline dehydration can treat human urine to produce a dry and nutrient-rich fertilizer. To evaluate the technology at pilot-scale, we built a prototype with capacity to treat 30 L urine d(-1)and field tested it for the first time at a military training camp in Finland. We operated the system for 3 months and monitored the recovery of nutrients, end-product composition, physicochemical properties and energy consumption. Results revealed that the system received less urine than anticipated, but achieved high dehydration rates (30-40 L d(-1)m(-2)), recovered 30 +/- 6% N, and yielded end-products with 1.4% N, 0.9% P, and 8.3% K. However, we demonstrated that the system had potential to recover nearly 70% N and produce fertilizers containing 13.2% N, 2.3% P, and 6.0% K, if it was operated at the design capacity. The energy demand for dehydrating urine was not optimized, but we suggested several ways of reducing it. We also discussed concerns surrounding non-essential heavy metals, salts, and micropollutants, and how they can be overcome to safely recycle urine. Lastly, we pointed out the research gaps that need to be addressed before the technology can be implemented at larger scale.

Authors/Creators:Simha, Prithvi and Karlsson, Caroline and Viskari, Eeva-Liisa and Malila, Riikka and Vinnerås, Björn
Title:Field Testing a Pilot-Scale System for Alkaline Dehydration of Source-Separated Human Urine: A Case Study in Finland
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:8
Article number:570637
Number of Pages:10
Publisher:FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
ISSN:2296-665X
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 208 Environmental Biotechnology > Water Treatment
Keywords:circular bioeconomy, decentralized systems, nutrient recycling, resource recovery, sanitation, source-separation, urine drying, wastewater treatment
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-108390
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-108390
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3389/fenvs.2020.570637
Web of Science (WoS)000575282600001
ID Code:18075
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:04 Nov 2020 15:43
Metadata Last Modified:04 Nov 2020 15:51

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