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Individual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears

Ordiz, Andrés and Milleret, Cyril and Uzal, Antonio and Zimmermann, Barbara and Wabakken, Petter and Wikenros, Camilla and Sand, Håkan and Swenson, Jon E. and Kindberg, Jonas (2020). Individual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears. Diversity. 12 , 356
[Journal article]

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Abstract

Several large carnivore populations are recovering former ranges, and it is important to understand interspecific interactions between overlapping species. In Scandinavia, recent research has reported that brown bear presence influences gray wolf habitat selection and kill rates. Here, we characterized the temporal use of a common prey resource by sympatric wolves and bears and described individual and seasonal variation in their direct and/or indirect interactions. Most bear-wolf interactions were indirect, via bear scavenging of wolf kills. Bears used >50% of wolf kills, whereas we did not record any wolf visit at bear kills. Adult and subadult bears visited wolf kills, but female bears with cubs of the year, the most vulnerable age class to conspecifics and other predators, did not. Wolf and bear kill rates peaked in early summer, when both targeted neonate moose calves, which coincided with a reduction in bear scavenging rate. Some bears were highly predatory and some did not kill any calf. Individual and age-class variation (in bear predation and scavenging patterns) and seasonality (in bear scavenging patterns and main prey availability of both wolves and bears) could mediate coexistence of these apex predators. Similar processes likely occur in other ecosystems with varying carnivore assemblages.

Authors/Creators:Ordiz, Andrés and Milleret, Cyril and Uzal, Antonio and Zimmermann, Barbara and Wabakken, Petter and Wikenros, Camilla and Sand, Håkan and Swenson, Jon E. and Kindberg, Jonas
Title:Individual Variation in Predatory Behavior, Scavenging and Seasonal Prey Availability as Potential Drivers of Coexistence between Wolves and Bears
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:12
Article number:356
Number of Pages:16
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1424-2818
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Keywords:apex predators, bear, interspecific interactions, moose, predation, scavenging, wolf
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109018
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109018
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/d12090356
Web of Science (WoS)000581370200001
ID Code:19102
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology

(S) > Dept. of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:03 Dec 2020 16:03
Metadata Last Modified:15 Jan 2021 19:44

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