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Seed dormancy and germination in Solanum nigrum and S. physalifolium as influenced by temperature conditions

Taab, Alireza (2009). Seed dormancy and germination in Solanum nigrum and S. physalifolium as influenced by temperature conditions. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2009:49
ISBN 978-91-86195-96-0
[Doctoral thesis]

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Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade) and Solanum physalifolium Rusby (hairy nightshade) are two important weeds in many crops. They reduce crop quantity by competition and crop quality by contaminating harvested products. The timing of different control measures is a key factor in integrated weed management, which must be related with emergence of the weeds. Since emergence timing of the species is controlled by seed dormancy and temperature conditions, the effect of temperature on dormancy and germination has to be well understood. Experiments were conducted to study seed dormancy, the temperature effect on dormancy, dormancy cycle, germination characteristics, and emergence of the species. In addition, a simulation model was developed to study the effect of temperature on the dynamics of dormancy release and induction under different temperature conditions. I found differences in primary dormancy among populations of S. nigrum collected on two dates and in different locations. Fresh seeds of S. nigrum were conditionally dormant and germinated at higher alternating temperatures and in light, while seeds of S. physalifolum were deeply dormant. Seed dormancy is reduced during autumn, winter and early spring in seeds buried in the soil. The rate of dormancy release and induction is low at lower temperatures and increases as the temperature rises. High temperatures cause short-lasting breakage of dormancy followed by induction. Short-lasting dormancy induction in spring is likely to delay emergence of the species. Seedling emergence of both species showed a bi- or three-modal pattern during an extended period in late spring and early summer. This enables the species to survive natural catastrophes or escape weed control operations. This information can be used to maximize the efficacy of weed management strategies by timing weed control tactics to coincide with seedling flushes. Dormancy is mainly induced during summer due to higher temperatures. This prevents seedlings from emerging too late and being killed by frost in autumn before reproduction.

Authors/Creators:Taab, Alireza
Title:Seed dormancy and germination in Solanum nigrum and S. physalifolium as influenced by temperature conditions
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2009
Number of Pages:48
ALLI Taab, A. & Andersson, L. (2009) Seasonal changes in seed dormancy of Solanum nigrum and Solanum physalifolium. Weed Research 49, 90–97. II Taab, A. & Andersson, L. (2009) Seed dormancy dynamics and germination characteristics of Solanum nigrum. Weed Research. In press. III Taab, A. & Andersson, L. (2009) Primary dormancy and seedling emergence of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) and hairy nightshade (Solanum physalifolium). Weed Science. In press. IV Taab, A., Eckersten, H. & Andersson, L. (2009) Modelling temperature effect on dormancy dynamics in moist stratified Solanum nigrum seeds (submitted manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-86195-96-0
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:H Protection of plants and stored products > H60 Weeds and weed control
F Plant production > F01 Crop husbandry
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:solanum nigrum, weeds, dormancy, seeds, seedlings, emergence, viability, germination, temperature, models
Keywords:black nightshade, hairy nightshade, dormancy, emergence, germination, modelling, seed, seedling, weed
Permanent URL:
ID Code:2064
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Crop Production Ecology
Deposited By: Alireza Taab
Deposited On:17 Aug 2009 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:15

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