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Responses of Pigs to Stunning with Nitrogen Filled High-Expansion Foam

Berg, Lotta and Lindahl, Cecilia and Brattlund Hellgren, Rebecka and Sindhøj, Erik and Wallenbeck, Anna (2020). Responses of Pigs to Stunning with Nitrogen Filled High-Expansion Foam. Animals. 10 , 2210
[Research article]

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Abstract

Simple SummaryStunning pigs with carbon dioxide gas is one of the most common methods for commercial slaughter. Carbon dioxide, however, has been shown to be aversive for pigs and causes a high degree of distress before they lose consciousness. Stunning with nitrogen gas is less aversive than with carbon dioxide, and an innovative method that delivers the nitrogen gas in high-expansion foam in a closed container could potentially improve pig welfare at stunning. Pigs were exposed to either air-filled foam, nitrogen-filled foam, or no foam in air, and the behavioural and physiological responses were assessed. The pigs did not show any strong aversive behaviours when exposed to foam, regardless of whether it was air-filled or nitrogen-filled foam. However, they seemed to avoid putting their heads and snouts into the foam, and the rate of escape attempts through the lid increased when foam levels became high. Five minutes after the nitrogen foam production started, the pigs were assessed to be in deep unconsciousness or dead. Based on the results found, stunning with the nitrogen foam technique may be a viable alternative to carbon dioxide stunning and offer improved animal welfare. Further studies are needed to assess the new method for stunning of slaughter-weight pigs.Nitrogen gas (N-2) delivered in high expansion foam in a closed container could be a feasible method for humanely stunning pigs. This study aimed to evaluate potential aversion in pigs to the N-2 foam method and its effect on stun quality. Furthermore, the study aimed to assess potential aversion to the foam itself. Sixty pigs (27.8 +/- 4.4 kg) were divided into three treatments and were exposed to either N-2-filled foam, air-filled foam, or no foam air. The N-2 foam was effective at purging the air from the container and quickly created stable anoxic conditions. The pigs did not show any strong aversive behaviours when exposed to foam. However, they seemed to avoid putting their heads and snouts into the foam when foam levels became high. Escape attempts through the lid also increased when the foam started covering their heads. The mean time to loss of posture was 57.9 s. Based on the results, stunning with the N-2 foam technique could be a viable alternative to high concentration CO2 stunning and potentially lead to improved animal welfare at slaughter.

Authors/Creators:Berg, Lotta and Lindahl, Cecilia and Brattlund Hellgren, Rebecka and Sindhøj, Erik and Wallenbeck, Anna
Title:Responses of Pigs to Stunning with Nitrogen Filled High-Expansion Foam
Series Name/Journal:Animals
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:10
Article number:2210
Number of Pages:16
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2076-2615
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
Keywords:animal welfare, hypoxia, anoxia, aversion, controlled atmosphere, killing, euthanasia, gas
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109489
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109489
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/ani10122210
Web of Science (WoS)000601738000001
ID Code:21224
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Animal Environment and Health
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:14 Jan 2021 13:03
Metadata Last Modified:15 Jan 2021 19:17

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