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Sources of pesticide losses to surface waters and groundwater at field and landscape scales

Lindahl, Anna M. L. (2009). Sources of pesticide losses to surface waters and groundwater at field and landscape scales. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2009:50
ISBN 978-91-86195-97-7
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Pesticide residues in groundwater and surface waters may harm aquatic ecosystems and result in a deterioration of drinking water quality. EU legislation and policy emphasize risk management and risk reduction for pesticides to ensure long-term, sustainable use of water across Europe. Different tools applicable at scales ranging from farm to national and EU scales are required to meet the needs of the various managers engaged with the task of protecting water resources. The use of computer-based pesticide fate and transport models at such large scales is challenging since models are scale-specific and generally developed for the soil pedon or plot scale. Modelling at larger scales is further complicated by the spatial and temporal variability of agro-environmental conditions and the uncertainty in predictions. The objective of this thesis was to identify the soil processes that dominate diffuse pesticide losses at field and landscape scales and to develop methods that can help identify 'high risk' areas for leaching. The underlying idea was that pesticide pollution of groundwater and surface waters can be mitigated if pesticide application on such areas is reduced. Macropore flow increases the risk of pesticide leaching and was identified as the most important process responsible for spatial variation of diffuse pesticide losses from a 30 ha field and a 9 km² catchment in the south of Sweden. Point-sources caused by careless handling of pesticides when filling or cleaning spraying equipment were also a significant source of contamination at the landscape scale. The research presented in this thesis suggests that the strength of macropore flow due to earthworm burrows and soil aggregation can be predicted from widely available soil survey information such as texture, management practices etc. Thus, a simple classification of soils according to their susceptibility to macropore flow may facilitate the use of process-based models at the landscape scale. Predictions of a meta-model of the MACRO model suggested that, at the field scale, fine-textured soils are high-risk areas for pesticide leaching. Uncertainty in pesticide degradation and sorption did not significantly affect predictions of the spatial extent of these high-risk areas. Thus, site-specific pesticide application seems to be a promising method for mitigating groundwater contamination at this scale.

Authors/Creators:Lindahl, Anna M. L.
Title:Sources of pesticide losses to surface waters and groundwater at field and landscape scales
Year of publishing :2009
Volume:2009:50
Number of Pages:72
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Lindahl, A.M.L., Kreuger, J., Stenström, J., Gärdenäs, A.I., Alavi, G., Roulier, S. and Jarvis, N.J. (2005). Stochastic modeling of diffuse pesticide losses from a small agricultural catchment. Journal of Environmental Quality 34(4), 1174-1185. II. Stenemo, F., Lindahl, A.M.L., Gärdenäs, A. and Jarvis, N. (2007). Meta-modeling of the pesticide fate model macro for groundwater exposure assessments using artificial neural networks. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 93(1-4), 270-283. III. Lindahl, A.M.L., Söderström, M. and Jarvis, N. (2008). Influence of input uncertainty on prediction of within-field pesticide leaching risks. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 98(3-4), 106-114. IV. Lindahl, A.M.L., Dubus, I.G. and Jarvis, N. (2009). Site classification to predict the abundance of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. Vadose Zone Journal. 8 (4). In press.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-86195-97-7
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:pesticides, residues, water pollution, surface water, groundwater, soil pore system, soil water movement, leaching, models, oligochaeta, sweden
Keywords:aggregate, classification tree, earthworm, leaching, macropore flow, modelling, pesticide, spatial variability, uncertainty & sensitivity analysis, upscaling.
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-2992
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-2992
ID Code:2129
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
(S) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
Deposited By: Anna Lindahl
Deposited On:07 Oct 2009 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:16

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