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Fruiting body form, not nutritional mode, is the major driver of diversification in mushroom-forming fungi

Sanchez-Garcia, Marisol and Ryberg, Martin and Kalsoom Khan, Faheema and Varga, Torda and Nagy, László G. and Hibbett, David S. (2020). Fruiting body form, not nutritional mode, is the major driver of diversification in mushroom-forming fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117
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Abstract

With ∼36,000 described species, Agaricomycetes are among the most successful groups of Fungi. Agaricomycetes display great diversity in fruiting body forms and nutritional modes. Most have pileate-stipitate fruiting bodies (with a cap and stalk), but the group also contains crust-like resupinate fungi, polypores, coral fungi, and gasteroid forms (e.g., puffballs and stinkhorns). Some Agaricomycetes enter into ectomycorrhizal symbioses with plants, while others are decayers (saprotrophs) or pathogens. We constructed a megaphylogeny of 8,400 species and used it to test the following five hypotheses regarding the evolution of morphological and ecological traits in Agaricomycetes and their impact on diversification: 1) resupinate forms are plesiomorphic, 2) pileate-stipitate forms promote diversification, 3) the evolution of gasteroid forms is irreversible, 4) the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis promotes diversification, and 5) the evolution of ECM symbiosis is irreversible. The ancestor of Agaricomycetes was a saprotroph with a resupinate fruiting body. There have been 462 transitions in the examined morphologies, including 123 origins of gasteroid forms. Reversals of gasteroid forms are highly unlikely but cannot be rejected. Pileate-stipitate forms are correlated with elevated diversification rates, suggesting that this morphological trait is a key to the success of Agaricomycetes. ECM symbioses have evolved 36 times in Agaricomycetes, with several transformations to parasitism. Across the entire 8,400-species phylogeny, diversification rates of ectomycorrhizal lineages are no greater than those of saprotrophic lineages. However, some ECM lineages have elevated diversification rates compared to their non-ECM sister clades, suggesting that the evolution of symbioses may act as a key innovation at local phylogenetic scales.

Authors/Creators:Sanchez-Garcia, Marisol and Ryberg, Martin and Kalsoom Khan, Faheema and Varga, Torda and Nagy, László G. and Hibbett, David S.
Title:Fruiting body form, not nutritional mode, is the major driver of diversification in mushroom-forming fungi
Series Name/Journal:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:117
Number of Pages:7
ISSN:1091-6490
Language:English
Publication Type:Journal article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Keywords:Agaricomycetes, diversification, ectomycorrhizal fungi, gasteroid forms, megaphylogeny
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109878
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-109878
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1073/pnas.1922539117
ID Code:21530
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:22 Jan 2021 14:43
Metadata Last Modified:22 Jan 2021 14:51

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