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Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya

Kemboi, David Chebutia and Ochieng, Phillis E. and Antonissen, Gunther and Croubels, Siska and Scippo, Marie-Louise and Okoth, Sheila and Kangethe, Erastus K. and Faas, Johannes and Doupovec, Barbara and Lindahl, Johanna and Gathumbi, James K. (2020). Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya. Toxins. 12 , 762
[Research article]

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Abstract

Mycotoxins are common in grains in sub-Saharan Africa and negatively impact human and animal health and production. This study assessed occurrences of mycotoxins, some plant, and bacterial metabolites in 16 dairy and 27 poultry feeds, and 24 feed ingredients from Machakos town, Kenya, in February and August 2019. We analyzed the samples using a validated multi-toxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 153 mycotoxins, plant, and bacterial toxins, were detected in the samples. All the samples were co-contaminated with 21 to 116 different mycotoxins and/or metabolites. The commonly occurring and EU regulated mycotoxins reported were; aflatoxins (AFs) (70%; range 0.2-318.5 mu g/kg), deoxynivalenol (82%; range 22.2-1037 mu g/kg), ergot alkaloids (70%; range 0.4-285.7 mu g/kg), fumonisins (90%; range 32.4-14,346 mu g/kg), HT-2 toxin (3%; range 11.9-13.8 mu g/kg), ochratoxin A (24%; range 1.1-24.3 mu g/kg), T-2 toxin (4%; range 2.7-5.2 mu g/kg) and zearalenone (94%; range 0.3-910.4 mu g/kg). Other unregulated emerging mycotoxins and metabolites including Alternaria toxins, Aspergillus toxins, bacterial metabolites, cytochalasins, depsipeptides, Fusarium metabolites, metabolites from other fungi, Penicillium toxins, phytoestrogens, plant metabolites, and unspecific metabolites were also detected at varying levels. Except for total AFs, where the average contamination level was above the EU regulatory limit, all the other mycotoxins detected had average contamination levels below the limits. Ninety-six percent of all the samples were contaminated with more than one of the EU regulated mycotoxins. These co-occurrences may cause synergistic and additive health effects thereby hindering the growth of the Kenyan livestock sector.

Authors/Creators:Kemboi, David Chebutia and Ochieng, Phillis E. and Antonissen, Gunther and Croubels, Siska and Scippo, Marie-Louise and Okoth, Sheila and Kangethe, Erastus K. and Faas, Johannes and Doupovec, Barbara and Lindahl, Johanna and Gathumbi, James K.
Title:Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya
Series Name/Journal:Toxins
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:12
Article number:762
Number of Pages:16
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:2072-6651
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Food Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
Keywords:aflatoxins, ergot alkaloids, feed safety, food safety, mycotoxins, sub-Saharan Africa
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-110207
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-110207
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/toxins12120762
Web of Science (WoS)000602503200001
ID Code:21772
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:27 Jan 2021 14:23
Metadata Last Modified:27 Jan 2021 14:31

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