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Cost analysis of autonomous battery electric field tractors in agriculture

Lagnelöv, Oscar and Dhillon, Shweta and Larsson, Gunnar and Nilsson, Daniel and Larsolle, Anders and Hansson, Per-Anders (2021). Cost analysis of autonomous battery electric field tractors in agriculture. Biosystems Engineering. 204 , 358-376
[Research article]

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Abstract

Interest in the electrification of agricultural vehicles is increasing along with growing interest in autonomous vehicles. Individual technologies have been well-explored, but not their combined use and the effects on agricultural fieldwork. In this study, cost analysis was conducted based on a simulated vehicle system with 50 kW self-driving battery electric drive (BED) tractors. The analysis included battery degradation due to cycling and the cost of inadequate machine capacity, as these factors are suspected to be problems for electric tractors. A dynamic discrete-event vehicle system model, a linear timeliness model and a one-dimensional battery cell ageing model were assumed. Costs obtained were compared with those of contemporary manned diesel-based systems. BED systems had equal or lower annual costs compared to conventional manned diesel-based systems; this was due to lower costs for fuel and maintenance, while providing adequate capacity and lower energy usage. Sensitivity analysis showed that operating costs were of greater significance than investment costs. The generally more expensive investment costs of BED systems were outweighed by the reduced operating costs for several different BED system systems. Battery degradation costs and timeliness were influential, but not sufficient to make the system uncompetitive. The synergistic effect of vehicular autonomy and BED outweighed several of the drawbacks of BED systems, such as frequent recharging, increased transport and reduced consecutive work time. ? 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IAgrE. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Authors/Creators:Lagnelöv, Oscar and Dhillon, Shweta and Larsson, Gunnar and Nilsson, Daniel and Larsolle, Anders and Hansson, Per-Anders
Title:Cost analysis of autonomous battery electric field tractors in agriculture
Series Name/Journal:Biosystems Engineering
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:204
Page range:358-376
Number of Pages:19
Publisher:ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
ISSN:1537-5110
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
Keywords:Agriculture, BEV, Economy, Autonomy, Timeliness, Battery ageing
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111568
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111568
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2021.02.005
Web of Science (WoS)000635780600011
ID Code:23325
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:22 Apr 2021 12:03
Metadata Last Modified:22 Apr 2021 12:11

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