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Age at first reproduction in wolves: different patterns of density dependence for females and males

Wikenros, Camilla and Gicquel, Morgane and Zimmermann, Barbara and Flagstad, Oystein and Åkesson, Mikael (2021). Age at first reproduction in wolves: different patterns of density dependence for females and males. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 288 , 20210207
[Research article]

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Abstract

Age at first reproduction constitutes a key life-history trait in animals and is evolutionarily shaped by fitness benefits and costs of delayed versus early reproduction. The understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic changes affects age at first reproduction is crucial for conservation and management of threatened species because of its demographic effects on population growth and generation time. For a period of 40 years in the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population, including the recolonization phase, we estimated age at first successful reproduction (pup survival to at least three weeks of age) and examined how the variation among individuals was explained by sex, population size (from 1 to 74 packs), primiparous or multiparous origin, reproductive experience of the partner and inbreeding. Median age at first reproduction was 3 years for females (n = 60) and 2 years for males (n = 74), and ranged between 1 and 8-10 years of age (n = 297). Female age at first reproduction decreased with increasing population size, and increased with higher levels of inbreeding. The probability for males to reproduce later first decreased, reaching its minimum when the number of territories approached 40-60, and then increased with increasing population size. Inbreeding for males and reproductive experience of parents and partners for both sexes had overall weak effects on age at first reproduction. These results allow for more accurate parameter estimates when modelling population dynamics for management and conservation of small and vulnerable wolf populations, and show how humans through legal harvest and illegal hunting influence an important life-history trait like age at first reproduction.

Authors/Creators:Wikenros, Camilla and Gicquel, Morgane and Zimmermann, Barbara and Flagstad, Oystein and Åkesson, Mikael
Title:Age at first reproduction in wolves: different patterns of density dependence for females and males
Series Name/Journal:Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:288
Article number:20210207
Number of Pages:9
Publisher:ROYAL SOC
ISSN:0962-8452
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Keywords:age at first birth, age at maturity, Allee effect, Canis lupus, primiparity, inbreeding
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111817
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111817
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1098/rspb.2021.0207
Web of Science (WoS)000638131600006
ID Code:23489
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:14 May 2021 12:43
Metadata Last Modified:14 May 2021 12:51

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