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Ammonia sanitisation of human excreta

treatment technology for production of fertiliser

Nordin, Annika (2010). Ammonia sanitisation of human excreta. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2010:67
ISBN 978-91-576-7512-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Safe reuse of plant nutrients from human excreta increases the sustainability of society and promotes health, both by decreasing disease transmission and by increasing agricultural production. This thesis examined ammonia sanitisation as a treatment method to produce a hygienically safe fertiliser from source-separated urine and faeces. Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were inactivated to a high degree even at low NH3 concentrations and temperatures. It was possible to model Salmonella spp. inactivation using these two parameters. Salmonella spp. inactivation is suggested to be verified by determining inactivation of faecal coliforms. Between NH3 concentrations 20 and 60 mM, a sharp decrease in inactivation was observed at 24 ºC or below for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophages and Ascaris eggs, with insignificant inactivation of the latter during 6 months. Urine contains sufficiently high total ammonia concentration and pH for selfsanitisation. Keeping the urine as concentrated as possible proved critical in achieving NH3 concentrations that inactivated Ascaris eggs. Sun exposure increased urine temperature and NH3 and shortened treatment time, and is feasible when urine containers are small. Urea treatment of faeces increased pH and total ammonia concentrations, both contributing to formation of NH3. The final value and stability of the pH achieved depended on initial pH and other material properties, but increased with increasing urea addition. At high pH caused by ash addition, urea was not degraded. When urea was added alone, it could not be confirmed that it was fully degraded. Organism inactivation was always faster in urea-treated faeces compared with untreated faeces. Urea treatment substantially shortened treatment time compared with storage, especially at the higher temperatures studied (24 and 34 ºC). Sanitation systems that collect urine and faeces separate and sanitise them by ammonia permit a high degree of hygienically safe plant nutrient reuse.

Authors/Creators:Nordin, Annika
Title:Ammonia sanitisation of human excreta
Subtitle:treatment technology for production of fertiliser
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :2010
Number of Pages:110
ALLI. Björn Vinnerås, Annika Nordin, Charles Niwagaba and Karin Nyberg (2008). Inactivation of bacteria and viruses in human urine depending on temperature and dilution rate. Water Research 42 (2008), 4067-4074. II. Annika Nordin, Karin Nyberg and Björn Vinnerås (2009). Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in source-separated urine and faeces by ammonia at ambient temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(3), 662- 667. III. Annika Nordin, Charles Niwagaba, Håkan Jönsson and Björn Vinnerås (2009). Pathogen and indicator inactivation in source-separated human urine heated by sun. Submitted Manuscript. IV. Annika Nordin, Jakob R. Ottoson and Björn Vinnerås (2009). Sanitation of faeces from source-separating dry toilets using urea. Journal of Applied Microbiology 107(2009), 1579-1587.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7512-5
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agrovoc terms:ammonia, disinfection, nutrients, recycling, faeces, urine, pathogens, ascaris suum, salmonella, models
Keywords:Ammonia, Ascaris, faeces, fertiliser, inactivation model, pathogen, Salmonella, sanitisation technology, sustainable sanitation, urine
Permanent URL:
ID Code:2361
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Deposited By: Annika Nordin
Deposited On:05 Oct 2010 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:17

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