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Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment

Gros Calvo, Meritxell and Ahrens, Lutz and Leven, Lotta and Koch, Alina and Dalahmeh, Sahar and Ljung, Emelie and Lundin, Göran and Jönsson, Håkan and Eveborn, David and Wiberg, Karin (2020). Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment. Science of the Total Environment. 703 , 135530
[Research article]

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Abstract

This study investigated, for the first time, the occurrence and fate of 29 multiple-class pharmaceuticals (PhACs) in two source separated sanitation systems based on: (i) batch experiments for the anaerobic digestion (AD) of fecal sludge under mesophilic (37 `C) and thermophilic (52 "C) conditions, and (ii) a full-scale blackwater treatment plant using wet composting and sanitation with urea addition. Results revealed high concentrations of PhACs in raw fecal sludge and blackwater samples, with concentrations up to hundreds of pg L-1 and fig kg-1 dry weight (dw) in liquid and solid fractions, respectively. For mesophilic and thermophilic treatments in the batch experiments, average PhACs removal rates of 31% and 45%, respectively, were observed. The average removal efficiency was slightly better for the full-scale blackwater treatment, with 49% average removal, and few compounds, such as atenolol, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide, showed almost complete degradation. In the AD treatments, no significant differences were observed between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. For the full-scale blackwater treatment, the aerobic wet composting step proved to be the most efficient in PhACs reduction, while urea addition had an almost negligible effect for most PhACs, except for citalopram, venlafaxine, oxazepam, valsartan and atorvastatin, for which minor reductions (on average 25%) were observed. Even though both treatment systems reduced initial PhACs loads considerably, significant PhAC concentrations remained in the treated effluents, indicating that fecal sludge and blackwater fertilizations could be a relevant vector for dissemination of PhACs into agricultural fields and thus the environment. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Authors/Creators:Gros Calvo, Meritxell and Ahrens, Lutz and Leven, Lotta and Koch, Alina and Dalahmeh, Sahar and Ljung, Emelie and Lundin, Göran and Jönsson, Håkan and Eveborn, David and Wiberg, Karin
Title:Pharmaceuticals in source separated sanitation systems: Fecal sludge and blackwater treatment
Series Name/Journal:Science of the Total Environment
Year of publishing :2020
Volume:703
Article number:135530
Number of Pages:10
ISSN:0048-9697
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Accepted version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0
Full Text Status:Restricted
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 208 Environmental Biotechnology > Water Treatment
Keywords:Source separation, Sanitation systems, Fecal sludge, Blacicvvater Pharmaceuticals
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-102990
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-102990
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135530
Web of Science (WoS)000505924300131
ID Code:23702
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:18 May 2021 08:03
Metadata Last Modified:18 May 2021 08:11

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