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Evaluation of Three Medetomidine-Based Anesthetic Protocols in Free-Ranging Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)

Morelli, Jacopo and Rossi, Sophie and Fuchs, Boris and Richard, Emmanuelle and Barros, Daniela S. B. and Kuker, Susanne and Arnemo, Jon and Evans, Alina L. (2021). Evaluation of Three Medetomidine-Based Anesthetic Protocols in Free-Ranging Wild Boars (Sus scrofa). Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 8 , 655345
[Research article]

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Abstract

Three medetomidine-based drug protocols were compared by evaluating time courses, reliability and physiological effects in wild boars. A total of 21 cage-trapped wild boars (Sus scrofa) were immobilized using one of the following drug combinations; MTZ: medetomidine (0.2 mg/kg) + tiletamine-zolazepam (2.0 mg/kg), MK: medetomidine (0.15 mg/kg) + ketamine (5 mg/kg), and MKB: medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg) + ketamine (5.0 mg/kg) + butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Induction time, recovery time, and physiological variables were recorded and arterial blood gas analysis measured twice, before and after 15 min of oxygen supplementation (0.5-1.0 L/min). For reversal, 4 mg of atipamezole per mg of medetomidine was administered intramuscularly. The boars recovered in the cage and were released once ataxia resolved. The MK group had significantly longer recovery times (mean 164 min +/- 79 SD) compared to the other groups. MKB elicited longer and incomplete induction compared to the other groups (mean induction time 20 min +/- 10 SD), decreasing the efficiency of the capture and increasing the risk of hyperthermia. Both ketamine-based protocols required additional ketamine intramuscularly to prolong the anesthesia after 20-40 min from induction. Agreement between the pulse oximeter and the blood gas analyzer was low, with the pulse oximeter underestimating the real values of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation, particularly at higher readings. Mild acute respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 45-60 mmHg) and mild to moderate hypoxemia (PaO2 69-80 mmHg) occurred in most boars, regardless of the treatment group but especially in the MKB group. The acid-base status improved and hypoxemia resolved in all boars during oxygen supplementation, with the PaO2 rising above the physiological reference range (81.6-107.7 mmHg) in many individuals. MK and MKB induced safe and reliable immobilization of wild boars for at least 20 min. Supplemental oxygen delivery is recommended in order to prevent hypoxemia in wild boars immobilized with the protocols used in the present study. Long and ataxic recoveries occurred in most animals, regardless of the protocol, but especially in the MKB group.

Authors/Creators:Morelli, Jacopo and Rossi, Sophie and Fuchs, Boris and Richard, Emmanuelle and Barros, Daniela S. B. and Kuker, Susanne and Arnemo, Jon and Evans, Alina L.
Title:Evaluation of Three Medetomidine-Based Anesthetic Protocols in Free-Ranging Wild Boars (Sus scrofa)
Series Name/Journal:Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:8
Article number:655345
Number of Pages:12
Publisher:FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
ISSN:2297-1769
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Clinical Science
Keywords:butorphanol, blood gas, oxygen, anesthesia, capture, medetomidine, Sus scrofa, wild boar (Sus scrofa L, )
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111832
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-111832
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3389/fvets.2021.655345
Web of Science (WoS)000639132200001
ID Code:23714
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Dept. of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:19 May 2021 15:03
Metadata Last Modified:19 May 2021 15:11

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