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Effector Avr4 in Phytophthora infestans Escapes Host Immunity Mainly Through Early Termination

Waheed, Abdul and Wang, Yan-Ping and Nkurikiyimfura, Oswald and Li, Wen-Yang and Liu, Shi-Ting and Lurwanu, Yahuza and Lu, Guo-Dong and Wang, Zong-Hua and Yang, Li-Na and Zhan, Jiasui (2021). Effector Avr4 in Phytophthora infestans Escapes Host Immunity Mainly Through Early Termination. Frontiers in Microbiology. 12 , 646062
[Research article]

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Abstract

Effector genes play critical roles in the antagonistic interactions between plants and pathogens. However, knowledge of mutation mechanisms and evolutionary processes in effector genes and the contribution of climatic factors to the evolution of effector genes are fragmented but important in sustainable management of plant diseases and securing food supply under changing climates. Here, we used a population genetic approach to explore the evolution of the Avr4 gene in Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato blight. We found that the Avr4 gene exhibited a high genetic diversity generated by point mutation and sequence deletion. Frameshifts caused by a single base-pair deletion at the 194th nucleotide position generate two stop codons, truncating almost the entire C-terminal, which is important for effector function and R4 recognition in all sequences. The effector is under natural selection for adaptation supported by comparative analyses of population differentiation (F-ST ) and isolation-by-distance between Avr4 sequences and simple sequence repeat marker loci. Furthermore, we found that local air temperature was positively associated with pairwise F-ST in the Avr4 sequences. These results suggest that the evolution of the effector gene is influenced by local air temperature, and the C-terminal truncation is one of the main mutation mechanisms in the P. infestans effector gene to circumvent the immune response of potato plants. The implication of these results to agricultural and natural sustainability in future climate conditions is discussed.

Authors/Creators:Waheed, Abdul and Wang, Yan-Ping and Nkurikiyimfura, Oswald and Li, Wen-Yang and Liu, Shi-Ting and Lurwanu, Yahuza and Lu, Guo-Dong and Wang, Zong-Hua and Yang, Li-Na and Zhan, Jiasui
Title:Effector Avr4 in Phytophthora infestans Escapes Host Immunity Mainly Through Early Termination
Series Name/Journal:Frontiers in Microbiology
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:12
Article number:646062
Number of Pages:12
Publisher:FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
ISSN:1664-302X
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
Keywords:Phytophthora infestans, effector gene, mutation mechanism, population genomics, protein truncation, thermal adaptation
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-112560
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-112560
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3389/fmicb.2021.646062
Web of Science (WoS)000659876500001
ID Code:24736
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:28 Jun 2021 14:25
Metadata Last Modified:28 Jun 2021 14:31

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