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Wild populations of malaria vectors can mate both inside and outside human dwellings

Nambunga, Ismail H. and Msugupakulya, Betwel J. and Hape, Emmanuel E. and Mshani, Issa H. and Kahamba, Najat F. and Mkandawile, Gustav and Mabula, Daniel M. and Njalambaha, Rukiyah M. and Kaindoa, Emmanuel W. and Muyaga, Letus L. and Hermy, Marie and Tripet, Frederic and Ferguson, Heather M. and Ngowo, Halfan S. and Okumu, Fredros O. (2021). Wild populations of malaria vectors can mate both inside and outside human dwellings. Parasites and Vectors. 14 , 514
[Research article]

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Abstract

Background Wild populations of Anopheles mosquitoes are generally thought to mate outdoors in swarms, although once colonized, they also mate readily inside laboratory cages. This study investigated whether the malaria vectors Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis can also naturally mate inside human dwellings. Method Mosquitoes were sampled from three volunteer-occupied experimental huts in a rural Tanzanian village at 6:00 p.m. each evening, after which the huts were completely sealed and sampling was repeated at 11:00 p.m and 6 a.m. the next morning to compare the proportions of inseminated females. Similarly timed collections were done inside local unsealed village houses. Lastly, wild-caught larvae and pupae were introduced inside or outside experimental huts constructed inside two semi-field screened chambers. The huts were then sealed and fitted with exit traps, allowing mosquito egress but not entry. Mating was assessed in subsequent days by sampling and dissecting emergent adults caught indoors, outdoors and in exit traps. Results Proportions of inseminated females inside the experimental huts in the village increased from approximately 60% at 6 p.m. to approximately 90% the following morning despite no new mosquitoes entering the huts after 6 p.m. Insemination in the local homes increased from approximately 78% to approximately 93% over the same time points. In the semi-field observations of wild-caught captive mosquitoes, the proportions of inseminated An. funestus were 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: +/- 2.8) outdoors, 25.2% (95% CI: +/- 3.4) indoors and 16.8% (+/- 8.3) in exit traps, while the proportions of inseminated An. arabiensis were 42.3% (95% CI: +/- 5.5) outdoors, 47.4% (95% CI: +/- 4.7) indoors and 37.1% (CI: +/- 6.8) in exit traps. Conclusion Wild populations of An. funestus and An. arabiensis in these study villages can mate both inside and outside human dwellings. Most of the mating clearly happens before the mosquitoes enter houses, but additional mating happens indoors. The ecological significance of such indoor mating remains to be determined. The observed insemination inside the experimental huts fitted with exit traps and in the unsealed village houses suggests that the indoor mating happens voluntarily even under unrestricted egress. These findings may inspire improved vector control, such as by targeting males indoors, and potentially inform alternative methods for colonizing strongly eurygamic Anopheles species (e.g. An. funestus) inside laboratories or semi-field chambers.

Authors/Creators:Nambunga, Ismail H. and Msugupakulya, Betwel J. and Hape, Emmanuel E. and Mshani, Issa H. and Kahamba, Najat F. and Mkandawile, Gustav and Mabula, Daniel M. and Njalambaha, Rukiyah M. and Kaindoa, Emmanuel W. and Muyaga, Letus L. and Hermy, Marie and Tripet, Frederic and Ferguson, Heather M. and Ngowo, Halfan S. and Okumu, Fredros O.
Title:Wild populations of malaria vectors can mate both inside and outside human dwellings
Series Name/Journal:Parasites and Vectors
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:14
Article number:514
Number of Pages:14
Publisher:BMC
ISSN:1756-3305
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 303 Health Sciences > Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Keywords:Mosquito mating, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Eurygamic species, Malaria, Tanzania
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114053
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114053
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1186/s13071-021-04989-8
Web of Science (WoS)000705863700004
ID Code:25898
Faculty:LTV - Fakulteten för landskapsarkitektur, trädgårds- och växtproduktionsvetenskap
Department:(LTJ, LTV) > Department of Plant Protection Biology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:21 Oct 2021 12:25
Metadata Last Modified:21 Oct 2021 12:31

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