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Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimate species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation

Frugone, Maria Jose and Cole, Theresa L. and López, Maria-Eugenia and Clucas, Gemma and Matos-Maravi, Pavel and Lois, Nicolas A. and Pistorius, Pierre and Bonadonna, Francesco and Trathan, Phil and Polanowski, Andrea and Wienecke, Barbara and Raya-Rey, Andrea and Putz, Klemens and Steinfurth, Antje and Bi, Ke and Wang-Claypool, Cynthia Y. and Waters, Jonathan M. and Bowie, Rauri C. K. and Poulin, Elie and Vianna, Juliana A. (2021). Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimate species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation. Diversity and Distributions. 27 , 2277-2296
[Research article]

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Abstract

Aim Delimiting recently diverged species is challenging. During speciation, genetic differentiation may be distributed unevenly across the genome, as different genomic regions can be subject to different selective pressures and evolutionary histories. Reliance on limited numbers of genetic markers that may be underpowered can make species delimitation even more challenging, potentially resulting in taxonomic inconsistencies. Rockhopper penguins of the genus Eudyptes comprise three broadly recognized taxa: northern (E. moseleyi), southern (E. chrysocome) and eastern rockhopper (E. filholi). Their taxonomic status has been controversial for decades, with researchers disagreeing about whether E. chrysocome and E. filholi are distinct species or conspecific. Our goal is to evaluate genome-wide patterns of divergence to evaluate genetic differentiation and species delimitation in rockhopper penguins, and to assess which mechanisms may underlie previous discordance among nuclear versus mitochondrial analyses. Location Sub-Antarctic and temperate coastal regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Methods We generated reduced-representation genomic libraries using double digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to evaluate genetic differentiation, contemporary migration rates and admixture among colonies of rockhopper penguins. Results The extent of genetic differentiation among the three taxa was consistently higher than population-level genetic differentiation found within these and other penguin species. There was no evidence of admixture among the three taxa, suggesting the absence of ongoing gene flow among them. Species delimitation analyses based on molecular data, along with other lines of evidence, provide strong support for the taxonomic distinction of three species of rockhopper penguins. Main conclusions Our results provide strong support for the existence of three distinct species of rockhopper penguins. The recognition of this taxonomic diversity is crucial for the management and conservation of this widely distributed species group. This study illustrates that widespread dispersive seabird lineages lacking obvious morphological differences may nevertheless have complex evolutionary histories and comprise cryptic species diversity.

Authors/Creators:Frugone, Maria Jose and Cole, Theresa L. and López, Maria-Eugenia and Clucas, Gemma and Matos-Maravi, Pavel and Lois, Nicolas A. and Pistorius, Pierre and Bonadonna, Francesco and Trathan, Phil and Polanowski, Andrea and Wienecke, Barbara and Raya-Rey, Andrea and Putz, Klemens and Steinfurth, Antje and Bi, Ke and Wang-Claypool, Cynthia Y. and Waters, Jonathan M. and Bowie, Rauri C. K. and Poulin, Elie and Vianna, Juliana A.
Title:Taxonomy based on limited genomic markers may underestimate species diversity of rockhopper penguins and threaten their conservation
Series Name/Journal:Diversity and Distributions
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:27
Page range:2277-2296
Number of Pages:20
Publisher:WILEY
ISSN:1366-9516
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Biological Systematics
Keywords:Eudyptes, genomics, rockhopper penguins, species delimitation
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-113983
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-113983
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1111/ddi.13399
Web of Science (WoS)000698353600001
ID Code:26003
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Department of Aquatic Resources
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:01 Nov 2021 15:25
Metadata Last Modified:01 Nov 2021 15:31

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